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Your Neighbor Could Be Teaching Kids Overseas

U.S. News

The things that are really great about it are the one-on-one (instruction) and the fact that all of the lessons are already built and put together for you,


ASK: Adversarial Soft k-Nearest Neighbor Attack and Defense

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

K-Nearest Neighbor (kNN)-based deep learning methods have been applied to many applications due to their simplicity and geometric interpretability. However, the robustness of kNN-based classification models has not been thoroughly explored and kNN attack strategies are underdeveloped. In this paper, we propose an Adversarial Soft kNN (ASK) loss to both design more effective kNN attack strategies and to develop better defenses against them. Our ASK loss approach has two advantages. First, ASK loss can better approximate the kNN's probability of classification error than objectives proposed in previous works. Second, the ASK loss is interpretable: it preserves the mutual information between the perturbed input and the kNN of the unperturbed input. We use the ASK loss to generate a novel attack method called the ASK-Attack (ASK-Atk), which shows superior attack efficiency and accuracy degradation relative to previous kNN attacks. Based on the ASK-Atk, we then derive an ASK-Defense (ASK-Def) method that optimizes the worst-case training loss induced by ASK-Atk.


The Surprising Effectiveness of Representation Learning for Visual Imitation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

While visual imitation learning offers one of the most effective ways of learning from visual demonstrations, generalizing from them requires either hundreds of diverse demonstrations, task specific priors, or large, hard-to-train parametric models. One reason such complexities arise is because standard visual imitation frameworks try to solve two coupled problems at once: learning a succinct but good representation from the diverse visual data, while simultaneously learning to associate the demonstrated actions with such representations. Such joint learning causes an interdependence between these two problems, which often results in needing large amounts of demonstrations for learning. To address this challenge, we instead propose to decouple representation learning from behavior learning for visual imitation. First, we learn a visual representation encoder from offline data using standard supervised and self-supervised learning methods. Once the representations are trained, we use non-parametric Locally Weighted Regression to predict the actions. We experimentally show that this simple decoupling improves the performance of visual imitation models on both offline demonstration datasets and real-robot door opening compared to prior work in visual imitation. All of our generated data, code, and robot videos are publicly available at https://jyopari.github.io/VINN/.


Iterative Teaching by Label Synthesis

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this paper, we consider the problem of iterative machine teaching, where a teacher provides examples sequentially based on the current iterative learner. In contrast to previous methods that have to scan over the entire pool and select teaching examples from it in each iteration, we propose a label synthesis teaching framework where the teacher randomly selects input teaching examples (e.g., images) and then synthesizes suitable outputs (e.g., labels) for them. We show that this framework can avoid costly example selection while still provably achieving exponential teachability. We propose multiple novel teaching algorithms in this framework. Finally, we empirically demonstrate the value of our framework.


Deep Adversarially-Enhanced k-Nearest Neighbors

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recent works have theoretically and empirically shown that deep neural networks (DNNs) have an inherent vulnerability to small perturbations. Applying the Deep k-Nearest Neighbors (DkNN) classifier, we observe a dramatically increasing robustness-accuracy trade-off as the layer goes deeper. In this work, we propose a Deep Adversarially-Enhanced k-Nearest Neighbors (DAEkNN) method which achieves higher robustness than DkNN and mitigates the robustness-accuracy trade-off in deep layers through two key elements. First, DAEkNN is based on an adversarially trained model. Second, DAEkNN makes predictions by leveraging a weighted combination of benign and adversarial training data. Empirically, we find that DAEkNN improves both the robustness and the robustness-accuracy trade-off on MNIST and CIFAR-10 datasets.