Scientists have developed an artificial intelligence system that can help better understand what triggers religious violence. The study, published in The Journal for Artificial Societies and Social Stimulation, focuses on two cases of extreme violence, firstly, the conflict commonly referred to as the Northern Ireland Troubles, which is regarded as one of the most violent periods in Irish history. The conflict, involving the British army and various Republican and Loyalist paramilitary groups, spanned three decades, claimed the lives of approximately 3,500 people and saw a further 47,000 injured. Although a much shorter period of tension, the 2002 Gujarat riots of India were equally devastating. The three-day period of inter-communal violence between the Hindu and Muslim communities in the western Indian state of Gujarat, began when a Sabarmarti Express train filled with Hindu pilgrims, stopped in the, predominantly Muslim town of Godhra, and ended with the deaths of more than 2,000 people.
In this paper, we examine the modularity assumption of behaviour-based models: that complex functionalities can be achieved by decomposition into simpler behaviours. In particular we look at the issue of conflicts among robot behaviour modules. The chief contribution of this work is a formal characterization of temporal cycles in behaviour systems and the development of an algorithm for detecting and avoiding such conflicts. We develop the mechanisms of stimulus specialization and response generalization for eliminating conflicts. The probable conflicts can be detected and eliminated before implementation. However the process of cycle elimination weakens the behaviour structure. We show how (a) removing conflicts results in less flexible and less useful behaviour modules and (b) the probability of conflict is greater for more powerful behaviour systems.
The central thesis of this paper is that the technology of intelligent, autonomous machines gives rise to novel fault modes that are not seen in other types of automation. As a consequence, autonomous systems provide new vectors for cyber-attack with the potential consequence of subversion, degraded behavior or outright failure of the autonomous system. While we can only pursue the analogy so far, maladaptive behavior and the other symptoms of these fault modes in some cases may resemble those found in humans. The term “psychopathology” is applied to fault modes of the human mind, but as yet we have no equivalent area of study for intelligent, autonomous machines. This area requires further study in order to document and explain the symptoms of unique faults in intelligent systems, whether they occur in nominal conditions or as a result of an outside, purposeful attack. By analyzing algorithms, architectures and what can go wrong with autonomous machines, we may a) gain insight into mechanisms of intelligence; b) learn how to design out, work around or otherwise mitigate these new failure modes; c) identify potential new cyber-security risks; d) increase the trustworthiness of machine intelligence. Vigilance and attention management mechanisms are identified as specific areas of risk.
The membership degree of (19) in the conflict set is the same as the truth value of the LHS, that is 0.64, which is The truth value of ravenous(mary) is 0.64, based on the'Tokens, like who and What, which start with upper case letters are variables. Usually, more than one production is satisfied on any one cycle of a forward-chaining production system and fiequently some of these productions may have several instantiations. A conflict-resolution strategy is a coordinated set of principles for selecting, among competing production instantiations, a subset to be executed. In most systems, only one production instantiation is executed on each cycle, although there are some systems [Siler et al., 19871 which may execute several instantiations per cycle. A system that is responsive to the demands of its environment is said to display sensitivity.
Thousands of people could return to their homes in Libya after a reconciliation deal between two feuding communities. People living in Tawergha were accused of supporting former leader Muammar Gaddafi during the 2011 uprising. Opposition forces in neighbouring Misrata cleared Tawergha and it is been largely empty ever since.