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Artificial intelligence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

#artificialintelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence exhibited by machines. In computer science, an ideal "intelligent" machine is a flexible rational agent that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of success at some goal.[1] Colloquially, the term "artificial intelligence" is applied when a machine mimics "cognitive" functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as "learning" and "problem solving".[2] As machines become increasingly capable, facilities once thought to require intelligence are removed from the definition. For example, optical character recognition is no longer perceived as an exemplar of "artificial intelligence" having become a routine technology.[3] Capabilities still classified as AI include advanced Chess and Go systems and self-driving cars. AI research is divided into subfields[4] that focus on specific problems or on specific approaches or on the use of a particular tool or towards satisfying particular applications. The central problems (or goals) of AI research include reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects.[5] General intelligence is among the field's long-term goals.[6] Approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence, soft computing (e.g. machine learning), and traditional symbolic AI. Many tools are used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, logic, methods based on probability and economics. The AI field draws upon computer science, mathematics, psychology, linguistics, philosophy, neuroscience and artificial psychology. The field was founded on the claim that human intelligence "can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it."[7] This raises philosophical arguments about the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings endowed with human-like intelligence, issues which have been explored by myth, fiction and philosophy since antiquity.[8] Attempts to create artificial intelligence has experienced many setbacks, including the ALPAC report of 1966, the abandonment of perceptrons in 1970, the Lighthill Report of 1973 and the collapse of the Lisp machine market in 1987. In the twenty-first century AI techniques became an essential part of the technology industry, helping to solve many challenging problems in computer science.[9]


On Human Robot Interaction using Multiple Modes

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Today robotics is a vibrant field of research and it has tremendous application potentials not only in the area of industrial environment, battle field, construction industry and deep sea exploration but also in the household domain as a humanoid social robot. To be accepted in the household, the robots must have a higher level of intelligence and they must be capable of interacting people socially around it who is not supposed to be robot specialist. All these come under the field of human robot interaction (HRI). Our hypothesis is- "It is possible to design a multimodal human robot interaction framework, to effectively communicate with Humanoid Robots". In order to establish the above hypothesis speech and gesture have been used as a mode of interaction and throughout the thesis we validate our hypothesis by theoretical design and experimental verifications.


A Review of Tracking, Prediction and Decision Making Methods for Autonomous Driving

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The models are updated using a CNN, which ensures robustness to noise, scaling and minor variations of the targets' appearance. As with many other related approaches, an online implementation offloads most of the processing to an external server leaving the embedded device from the vehicle to carry out only minor and frequently-needed tasks. Since quick reactions of the system are crucial for proper and safe vehicle operation, performance and a rapid response of the underlying software is essential, which is why the online approach is popular in this field. Also in the context of ensuring robustness and stability, some authors apply fusion techniques to information extracted from CNN layers. It has been previously mentioned that important correlations can be drawn from deep and shallow layers which can be exploited together for identifying robust features in the data.


Tackling Climate Change with Machine Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity, and we, as machine learning experts, may wonder how we can help. Here we describe how machine learning can be a powerful tool in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and helping society adapt to a changing climate. From smart grids to disaster management, we identify high impact problems where existing gaps can be filled by machine learning, in collaboration with other fields. Our recommendations encompass exciting research questions as well as promising business opportunities. We call on the machine learning community to join the global effort against climate change.