The R Package CEC performs clustering based on the cross-entropy clustering (CEC) method, which was recently developed with the use of information theory. The main advantage of CEC is that it combines the speed and simplicity of $k$-means with the ability to use various Gaussian mixture models and reduce unnecessary clusters. In this work we present a practical tutorial to CEC based on the R Package CEC. Functions are provided to encompass the whole process of clustering.
In this paper, we focus on finding clusters in partially categorized data sets. We propose a semi-supervised version of Gaussian mixture model, called C3L, which retrieves natural subgroups of given categories. In contrast to other semi-supervised models, C3L is parametrized by user-defined leakage level, which controls maximal inconsistency between initial categorization and resulting clustering. Our method can be implemented as a module in practical expert systems to detect clusters, which combine expert knowledge with true distribution of data. Moreover, it can be used for improving the results of less flexible clustering techniques, such as projection pursuit clustering. The paper presents extensive theoretical analysis of the model and fast algorithm for its efficient optimization. Experimental results show that C3L finds high quality clustering model, which can be applied in discovering meaningful groups in partially classified data.
Model-based clustering approaches concern the paradigm of exploratory data analysis relying on the finite mixture model to automatically find a latent structure governing observed data. They are one of the most popular and successful approaches in cluster analysis. The mixture density estimation is generally performed by maximizing the observed-data log-likelihood by using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. However, it is well-known that the EM algorithm initialization is crucial. In addition, the standard EM algorithm requires the number of clusters to be known a priori. Some solutions have been provided in [31, 12] for model-based clustering with Gaussian mixture models for multivariate data. In this paper we focus on model-based curve clustering approaches, when the data are curves rather than vectorial data, based on regression mixtures. We propose a new robust EM algorithm for clustering curves. We extend the model-based clustering approach presented in  for Gaussian mixture models, to the case of curve clustering by regression mixtures, including polynomial regression mixtures as well as spline or B-spline regressions mixtures. Our approach both handles the problem of initialization and the one of choosing the optimal number of clusters as the EM learning proceeds, rather than in a two-fold scheme. This is achieved by optimizing a penalized log-likelihood criterion. A simulation study confirms the potential benefit of the proposed algorithm in terms of robustness regarding initialization and funding the actual number of clusters.
The problem of complex data analysis is a central topic of modern statistical science and learning systems and is becoming of broader interest with the increasing prevalence of high-dimensional data. The challenge is to develop statistical models and autonomous algorithms that are able to acquire knowledge from raw data for exploratory analysis, which can be achieved through clustering techniques or to make predictions of future data via classification (i.e., discriminant analysis) techniques. Latent data models, including mixture model-based approaches are one of the most popular and successful approaches in both the unsupervised context (i.e., clustering) and the supervised one (i.e, classification or discrimination). Although traditionally tools of multivariate analysis, they are growing in popularity when considered in the framework of functional data analysis (FDA). FDA is the data analysis paradigm in which the individual data units are functions (e.g., curves, surfaces), rather than simple vectors. In many areas of application, the analyzed data are indeed often available in the form of discretized values of functions or curves (e.g., time series, waveforms) and surfaces (e.g., 2d-images, spatio-temporal data). This functional aspect of the data adds additional difficulties compared to the case of a classical multivariate (non-functional) data analysis. We review and present approaches for model-based clustering and classification of functional data. We derive well-established statistical models along with efficient algorithmic tools to address problems regarding the clustering and the classification of these high-dimensional data, including their heterogeneity, missing information, and dynamical hidden structure. The presented models and algorithms are illustrated on real-world functional data analysis problems from several application area.
This paper introduces a novel mixture model-based approach for simultaneous clustering and optimal segmentation of functional data which are curves presenting regime changes. The proposed model consists in a finite mixture of piecewise polynomial regression models. Each piecewise polynomial regression model is associated with a cluster, and within each cluster, each piecewise polynomial component is associated with a regime (i.e., a segment). We derive two approaches for learning the model parameters. The former is an estimation approach and consists in maximizing the observed-data likelihood via a dedicated expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. A fuzzy partition of the curves in K clusters is then obtained at convergence by maximizing the posterior cluster probabilities. The latter however is a classification approach and optimizes a specific classification likelihood criterion through a dedicated classification expectation-maximization (CEM) algorithm. The optimal curve segmentation is performed by using dynamic programming. In the classification approach, both the curve clustering and the optimal segmentation are performed simultaneously as the CEM learning proceeds. We show that the classification approach is the probabilistic version that generalizes the deterministic K-means-like algorithm proposed in H\'ebrail et al. (2010). The proposed approach is evaluated using simulated curves and real-world curves. Comparisons with alternatives including regression mixture models and the K-means like algorithm for piecewise regression demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.