Multi-task prediction models are widely being used to couple regressors or classification models by sharing information across related tasks. A common pitfall of these models is that they assume that the output tasks are independent conditioned on the inputs. Here, we propose a multi-task Gaussian process approach to model both the relatedness between regressors as well as the task correlations in the residuals, in order to more accurately identify true sharing between regressors. The resulting Gaussian model has a covariance term that is the sum of Kronecker products, for which efficient parameter inference and out of sample prediction are feasible. On both synthetic examples and applications to phenotype prediction in genetics, we find substantial benefits of modeling structured noise compared to established alternatives.
Compared with global average pooling in existing deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs), global covariance pooling can capture richer statistics of deep features, having potential for improving representation and generalization abilities of deep CNNs. However, integration of global covariance pooling into deep CNNs brings two challenges: (1) robust covariance estimation given deep features of high dimension and small sample; (2) appropriate use of geometry of covariances. To address these challenges, we propose a global Matrix Power Normalized COVariance (MPN-COV) Pooling. Our MPN-COV conforms to a robust covariance estimator, very suitable for scenario of high dimension and small sample. It can also be regarded as power-Euclidean metric between covariances, effectively exploiting their geometry. Furthermore, a global Gaussian embedding method is proposed to incorporate first-order statistics into MPN-COV. For fast training of MPN-COV networks, we propose an iterative matrix square root normalization, avoiding GPU unfriendly eigen-decomposition inherent in MPN-COV. Additionally, progressive 1x1 and group convolutions are introduced to compact covariance representations. The MPN-COV and its variants are highly modular, readily plugged into existing deep CNNs. Extensive experiments are conducted on large-scale object classification, scene categorization, fine-grained visual recognition and texture classification, showing our methods are superior to the counterparts and achieve state-of-the-art performance.
We study the value of information in sequential compressed sensing by characterizing the performance of sequential information guided sensing in practical scenarios when information is inaccurate. In particular, we assume the signal distribution is parameterized through Gaussian or Gaussian mixtures with estimated mean and covariance matrices, and we can measure compressively through a noisy linear projection or using one-sparse vectors, i.e., observing one entry of the signal each time. We establish a set of performance bounds for the bias and variance of the signal estimator via posterior mean, by capturing the conditional entropy (which is also related to the size of the uncertainty), and the additional power required due to inaccurate information to reach a desired precision. Based on this, we further study how to estimate covariance based on direct samples or covariance sketching. Numerical examples also demonstrate the superior performance of Info-Greedy Sensing algorithms compared with their random and non-adaptive counterparts.
We characterize the performance of sequential information guided sensing, Info-Greedy Sensing, when there is a mismatch between the true signal model and the assumed model, which may be a sample estimate. In particular, we consider a setup where the signal is low-rank Gaussian and the measurements are taken in the directions of eigenvectors of the covariance matrix in a decreasing order of eigenvalues. We establish a set of performance bounds when a mismatched covariance matrix is used, in terms of the gap of signal posterior entropy, as well as the additional amount of power required to achieve the same signal recovery precision. Based on this, we further study how to choose an initialization for Info-Greedy Sensing using the sample covariance matrix, or using an efficient covariance sketching scheme.