In this paper, we address the problem of dataset quality in the context of Machine Learning (ML)-based critical systems. We briefly analyse the applicability of some existing standards dealing with data and show that the specificities of the ML context are neither properly captured nor taken into ac-count. As a first answer to this concerning situation, we propose a dataset specification and verification process, and apply it on a signal recognition system from the railway domain. In addi-tion, we also give a list of recommendations for the collection and management of datasets. This work is one step towards the dataset engineering process that will be required for ML to be used on safety critical systems.
Autonomous vehicles rely on machine learning to solve challenging tasks in perception and motion planning. However, automotive software safety standards have not fully evolved to address the challenges of machine learning safety such as interpretability, verification, and performance limitations. In this paper, we review and organize practical machine learning safety techniques that can complement engineering safety for machine learning based software in autonomous vehicles. Our organization maps safety strategies to state-of-the-art machine learning techniques in order to enhance dependability and safety of machine learning algorithms. We also discuss security limitations and user experience aspects of machine learning components in autonomous vehicles.
Machine learning has evolved into an enabling technology for a wide range of highly successful applications. The potential for this success to continue and accelerate has placed machine learning (ML) at the top of research, economic and political agendas. Such unprecedented interest is fuelled by a vision of ML applicability extending to healthcare, transportation, defence and other domains of great societal importance. Achieving this vision requires the use of ML in safety-critical applications that demand levels of assurance beyond those needed for current ML applications. Our paper provides a comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art in the assurance of ML, i.e. in the generation of evidence that ML is sufficiently safe for its intended use. The survey covers the methods capable of providing such evidence at different stages of the machine learning lifecycle, i.e. of the complex, iterative process that starts with the collection of the data used to train an ML component for a system, and ends with the deployment of that component within the system. The paper begins with a systematic presentation of the ML lifecycle and its stages. We then define assurance desiderata for each stage, review existing methods that contribute to achieving these desiderata, and identify open challenges that require further research.
The use of machine learning (ML) is on the rise in many sectors of software development, and automotive software development is no different. In particular, Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and Automated Driving Systems (ADS) are two areas where ML plays a significant role. In automotive development, safety is a critical objective, and the emergence of standards such as ISO 26262 has helped focus industry practices to address safety in a systematic and consistent way. Unfortunately, these standards were not designed to accommodate technologies such as ML or the type of functionality that is provided by an ADS and this has created a conflict between the need to innovate and the need to improve safety. In this report, we take steps to address this conflict by doing a detailed assessment and adaption of ISO 26262 for ML, specifically in the context of supervised learning. First we analyze the key factors that are the source of the conflict. Then we assess each software development process requirement (Part 6 of ISO 26262) for applicability to ML. Where there are gaps, we propose new requirements to address the gaps. Finally we discuss the application of this adapted and extended variant of Part 6 to ML development scenarios.
After more than a decade of intense focus on automated vehicles, we are still facing huge challenges for the vision of fully autonomous driving to become a reality. The same "disillusionment" is true in many other domains, in which autonomous Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) could considerably help to overcome societal challenges and be highly beneficial to society and individuals. Taking the automotive domain, i.e. highly automated vehicles (HAV), as an example, this paper sets out to summarize the major challenges that are still to overcome for achieving safe, secure, reliable and trustworthy highly automated resp. autonomous CPS. We constrain ourselves to technical challenges, acknowledging the importance of (legal) regulations, certification, standardization, ethics, and societal acceptance, to name but a few, without delving deeper into them as this is beyond the scope of this paper. Four challenges have been identified as being the main obstacles to realizing HAV: Realization of continuous, post-deployment systems improvement, handling of uncertainties and incomplete information, verification of HAV with machine learning components, and prediction. Each of these challenges is described in detail, including sub-challenges and, where appropriate, possible approaches to overcome them. By working together in a common effort between industry and academy and focusing on these challenges, the authors hope to contribute to overcome the "disillusionment" for realizing HAV.