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### SEED: Self-supervised Distillation For Visual Representation

This paper is concerned with self-supervised learning for small models. The problem is motivated by our empirical studies that while the widely used contrastive self-supervised learning method has shown great progress on large model training, it does not work well for small models. To address this problem, we propose a new learning paradigm, named SElf-SupErvised Distillation (SEED), where we leverage a larger network (as Teacher) to transfer its representational knowledge into a smaller architecture (as Student) in a self-supervised fashion. Instead of directly learning from unlabeled data, we train a student encoder to mimic the similarity score distribution inferred by a teacher over a set of instances. We show that SEED dramatically boosts the performance of small networks on downstream tasks. Compared with self-supervised baselines, SEED improves the top-1 accuracy from 42.2% to 67.6% on EfficientNet-B0 and from 36.3% to 68.2% on MobileNet-v3-Large on the ImageNet-1k dataset.

### Distill on the Go: Online knowledge distillation in self-supervised learning

Self-supervised learning solves pretext prediction tasks that do not require annotations to learn feature representations. For vision tasks, pretext tasks such as predicting rotation, solving jigsaw are solely created from the input data. Yet, predicting this known information helps in learning representations useful for downstream tasks. However, recent works have shown that wider and deeper models benefit more from self-supervised learning than smaller models. To address the issue of self-supervised pre-training of smaller models, we propose Distill-on-the-Go (DoGo), a self-supervised learning paradigm using single-stage online knowledge distillation to improve the representation quality of the smaller models. We employ deep mutual learning strategy in which two models collaboratively learn from each other to improve one another. Specifically, each model is trained using self-supervised learning along with distillation that aligns each model's softmax probabilities of similarity scores with that of the peer model. We conduct extensive experiments on multiple benchmark datasets, learning objectives, and architectures to demonstrate the potential of our proposed method. Our results show significant performance gain in the presence of noisy and limited labels and generalization to out-of-distribution data.

### Big Self-Supervised Models are Strong Semi-Supervised Learners

One paradigm for learning from few labeled examples while making best use of a large amount of unlabeled data is unsupervised pretraining followed by supervised fine-tuning. Although this paradigm uses unlabeled data in a task-agnostic way, in contrast to common approaches to semi-supervised learning for computer vision, we show that it is surprisingly effective for semi-supervised learning on ImageNet. A key ingredient of our approach is the use of big (deep and wide) networks during pretraining and fine-tuning. We find that, the fewer the labels, the more this approach (task-agnostic use of unlabeled data) benefits from a bigger network. After fine-tuning, the big network can be further improved and distilled into a much smaller one with little loss in classification accuracy by using the unlabeled examples for a second time, but in a task-specific way. The proposed semi-supervised learning algorithm can be summarized in three steps: unsupervised pretraining of a big ResNet model using SimCLRv2, supervised fine-tuning on a few labeled examples, and distillation with unlabeled examples for refining and transferring the task-specific knowledge. This procedure achieves 73.9% ImageNet top-1 accuracy with just 1% of the labels ($\le$13 labeled images per class) using ResNet-50, a $10\times$ improvement in label efficiency over the previous state-of-the-art. With 10% of labels, ResNet-50 trained with our method achieves 77.5% top-1 accuracy, outperforming standard supervised training with all of the labels.

### Efficient Self-supervised Vision Transformers for Representation Learning

This paper investigates two techniques for developing efficient self-supervised vision transformers (EsViT) for visual representation learning. First, we show through a comprehensive empirical study that multi-stage architectures with sparse self-attentions can significantly reduce modeling complexity but with a cost of losing the ability to capture fine-grained correspondences between image regions. Second, we propose a new pre-training task of region matching which allows the model to capture fine-grained region dependencies and as a result significantly improves the quality of the learned vision representations. Our results show that combining the two techniques, EsViT achieves 81.3% top-1 on the ImageNet linear probe evaluation, outperforming prior arts with around an order magnitude of higher throughput. When transferring to downstream linear classification tasks, EsViT outperforms its supervised counterpart on 17 out of 18 datasets. The code and models will be publicly available.

### Contrastive Representation Distillation

Often we wish to transfer representational knowledge from one neural network to another. Examples include distilling a large network into a smaller one, transferring knowledge from one sensory modality to a second, or ensembling a collection of models into a single estimator. Knowledge distillation, the standard approach to these problems, minimizes the KL divergence between the probabilistic outputs of a teacher and student network. We demonstrate that this objective ignores important structural knowledge of the teacher network. This motivates an alternative objective by which we train a student to capture significantly more information in the teacher's representation of the data. We formulate this objective as contrastive learning. Experiments demonstrate that our resulting new objective outperforms knowledge distillation and other cutting-edge distillers on a variety of knowledge transfer tasks, including single model compression, ensemble distillation, and cross-modal transfer. Our method sets a new state-of-the-art in many transfer tasks, and sometimes even outperforms the teacher network when combined with knowledge distillation. Code: http://github.com/HobbitLong/RepDistiller.