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ELG: An Event Logic Graph

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The evolution and development of events have their own basic principles, which make events happen sequentially. Therefore, the discovery of such evolutionary patterns among events are of great value for event prediction, decision-making and scenario design of dialog systems. However, conventional knowledge graph mainly focuses on the entities and their relations, which neglects the real world events. In this paper, we present a novel type of knowledge base - Event Logic Graph (ELG), which can reveal evolutionary patterns and development logics of real world events. Specifically, ELG is a directed cyclic graph, whose nodes are events, and edges stand for the sequential, causal or hypernym-hyponym (is-a) relations between events. We constructed two domain ELG: financial domain ELG, which consists of more than 1.5 million of event nodes and more than 1.8 million of directed edges, and travel domain ELG, which consists of about 30 thousand of event nodes and more than 234 thousand of directed edges. Experimental results show that ELG is effective for the task of script event prediction.


A bag-of-concepts model improves relation extraction in a narrow knowledge domain with limited data

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper focuses on a traditional relation extraction task in the context of limited annotated data and a narrow knowledge domain. We explore this task with a clinical corpus consisting of 200 breast cancer follow-up treatment letters in which 16 distinct types of relations are annotated. We experiment with an approach to extracting typed relations called window-bounded co-occurrence (WBC), which uses an adjustable context window around entity mentions of a relevant type, and compare its performance with a more typical intra-sentential co-occurrence baseline. We further introduce a new bag-of-concepts (BoC) approach to feature engineering based on the state-of-the-art word embeddings and word synonyms. We demonstrate the competitiveness of BoC by comparing with methods of higher complexity, and explore its effectiveness on this small dataset.


Distributional semantic modeling: a revised technique to train term/word vector space models applying the ontology-related approach

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We design a new technique for the distributional semantic modeling with a neural network-based approach to learn distributed term representations (or term embeddings) - term vector space models as a result, inspired by the recent ontology-related approach (using different types of contextual knowledge such as syntactic knowledge, terminological knowledge, semantic knowledge, etc.) to the identification of terms (term extraction) and relations between them (relation extraction) called semantic pre-processing technology - SPT. Our method relies on automatic term extraction from the natural language texts and subsequent formation of the problem-oriented or application-oriented (also deeply annotated) text corpora where the fundamental entity is the term (includes non-compositional and compositional terms). This gives us an opportunity to changeover from distributed word representations (or word embeddings) to distributed term representations (or term embeddings). This transition will allow to generate more accurate semantic maps of different subject domains (also, of relations between input terms - it is useful to explore clusters and oppositions, or to test your hypotheses about them). The semantic map can be represented as a graph using Vec2graph - a Python library for visualizing word embeddings (term embeddings in our case) as dynamic and interactive graphs. The Vec2graph library coupled with term embeddings will not only improve accuracy in solving standard NLP tasks, but also update the conventional concept of automated ontology development. The main practical result of our work is the development kit (set of toolkits represented as web service APIs and web application), which provides all necessary routines for the basic linguistic pre-processing and the semantic pre-processing of the natural language texts in Ukrainian for future training of term vector space models.


OpenKI: Integrating Open Information Extraction and Knowledge Bases with Relation Inference

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this paper, we consider advancing web-scale knowledge extraction and alignment by integrating OpenIE extractions in the form of (subject, predicate, object) triples with Knowledge Bases (KB). Traditional techniques from universal schema and from schema mapping fall in two extremes: either they perform instance-level inference relying on embedding for (subject, object) pairs, thus cannot handle pairs absent in any existing triples; or they perform predicate-level mapping and completely ignore background evidence from individual entities, thus cannot achieve satisfying quality. We propose OpenKI to handle sparsity of OpenIE extractions by performing instance-level inference: for each entity, we encode the rich information in its neighborhood in both KB and OpenIE extractions, and leverage this information in relation inference by exploring different methods of aggregation and attention. In order to handle unseen entities, our model is designed without creating entity-specific parameters. Extensive experiments show that this method not only significantly improves state-of-the-art for conventional OpenIE extractions like ReVerb, but also boosts the performance on OpenIE from semi-structured data, where new entity pairs are abundant and data are fairly sparse.


Joint Event and Temporal Relation Extraction with Shared Representations and Structured Prediction

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The task can be modeled as building a graph for a given text, whose nodes represent events and edges are labeled with temporal relations correspondingly. Figure 1a illustrates such a graph for the text shown therein. The nodes assassination, slaughtered, rampage, war, and Hutu are the candidate events, and different types of edges specify different temporal relations between them: assassination is BEFORE rampage, rampage INCLUDES slaughtered, and the relation between slaughtered and war is VAGUE. Since "Hutu" is actually not an event, a system is expected to annotate the relations between "Hutu" and all other nodes in the graph as NONE (i.e., no relation). As far as we know, all existing systems treat this task as a pipeline of two separate subtasks, (a) Temporal Relation Graph (b) Pipeline Model (c) Structured Joint Model Figure 1: An illustration of event and relation models in our proposed joint framework.