Evidential Deep Learning to Quantify Classification Uncertainty

Neural Information Processing Systems

Deterministic neural nets have been shown to learn effective predictors on a wide range of machine learning problems. However, as the standard approach is to train the network to minimize a prediction loss, the resultant model remains ignorant to its prediction confidence. Orthogonally to Bayesian neural nets that indirectly infer prediction uncertainty through weight uncertainties, we propose explicit modeling of the same using the theory of subjective logic. By placing a Dirichlet distribution on the class probabilities, we treat predictions of a neural net as subjective opinions and learn the function that collects the evidence leading to these opinions by a deterministic neural net from data. The resultant predictor for a multi-class classification problem is another Dirichlet distribution whose parameters are set by the continuous output of a neural net. We provide a preliminary analysis on how the peculiarities of our new loss function drive improved uncertainty estimation. We observe that our method achieves unprecedented success on detection of out-of-distribution queries and endurance against adversarial perturbations.

Gaussian-binary Restricted Boltzmann Machines on Modeling Natural Image Statistics

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We present a theoretical analysis of Gaussian-binary restricted Boltzmann machines (GRBMs) from the perspective of density models. The key aspect of this analysis is to show that GRBMs can be formulated as a constrained mixture of Gaussians, which gives a much better insight into the model's capabilities and limitations. We show that GRBMs are capable of learning meaningful features both in a two-dimensional blind source separation task and in modeling natural images. Further, we show that reported difficulties in training GRBMs are due to the failure of the training algorithm rather than the model itself. Based on our analysis we are able to propose several training recipes, which allowed successful and fast training in our experiments. Finally, we discuss the relationship of GRBMs to several modifications that have been proposed to improve the model.

Self-Adversarially Learned Bayesian Sampling

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Scalable Bayesian sampling is playing an important role in modern machine learning, especially in the fast-developed unsupervised-(deep)-learning models. While tremendous progresses have been achieved via scalable Bayesian sampling such as stochastic gradient MCMC (SG-MCMC) and Stein variational gradient descent (SVGD), the generated samples are typically highly correlated. Moreover, their sample-generation processes are often criticized to be inefficient. In this paper, we propose a novel self-adversarial learning framework that automatically learns a conditional generator to mimic the behavior of a Markov kernel (transition kernel). High-quality samples can be efficiently generated by direct forward passes though a learned generator. Most importantly, the learning process adopts a self-learning paradigm, requiring no information on existing Markov kernels, e.g., knowledge of how to draw samples from them. Specifically, our framework learns to use current samples, either from the generator or pre-provided training data, to update the generator such that the generated samples progressively approach a target distribution, thus it is called self-learning. Experiments on both synthetic and real datasets verify advantages of our framework, outperforming related methods in terms of both sampling efficiency and sample quality.

Bayesian Adversarial Spheres: Bayesian Inference and Adversarial Examples in a Noiseless Setting

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Modern deep neural network models suffer from adversarial examples, i.e. confidently misclassified points in the input space. It has been shown that Bayesian neural networks are a promising approach for detecting adversarial points, but careful analysis is problematic due to the complexity of these models. Recently Gilmer et al. (2018) introduced adversarial spheres, a toy set-up that simplifies both practical and theoretical analysis of the problem. In this work, we use the adversarial sphere set-up to understand the properties of approximate Bayesian inference methods for a linear model in a noiseless setting. We compare predictions of Bayesian and non-Bayesian methods, showcasing the advantages of the former, although revealing open challenges for deep learning applications.

Cyclical Stochastic Gradient MCMC for Bayesian Deep Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The posteriors over neural network weights are high dimensional and multimodal. Each mode typically characterizes a meaningfully different representation of the data. We develop Cyclical Stochastic Gradient MCMC (SG-MCMC) to automatically explore such distributions. In particular, we propose a cyclical stepsize schedule, where larger steps discover new modes, and smaller steps characterize each mode. We prove that our proposed learning rate schedule provides faster convergence to samples from a stationary distribution than SG-MCMC with standard decaying schedules. Moreover, we provide extensive experimental results to demonstrate the effectiveness of cyclical SG-MCMC in learning complex multimodal distributions, especially for fully Bayesian inference with modern deep neural networks.