Unlike task-specific algorithms, Deep Learning is a part of Machine Learning family based on learning data representations. With massive amounts of computational power, machines can now recognize objects and translate speech in real time, enabling a smart Artificial intelligence in systems. The concept of a software simulating the neocortex's large array of neurons in an artificial neural network is decades old, and it has led to as many disappointments as breakthroughs. But because of improvements in mathematical formulas and increasingly powerful computers, today researchers & data scientists can model many more layers of virtual neurons than ever before. "Recent improvements in Deep Learning has reignited some of the grand challenges in Artificial Intelligence."

Downs, Oliver B., MacKay, David J. C., Lee, Daniel D.

The nonnegative Boltzmann machine (NNBM) is a recurrent neural network model that can describe multimodal nonnegative data. Application of maximum likelihood estimation to this model gives a learning rule that is analogous to the binary Boltzmann machine. We examine the utility of the mean field approximation for the NNBM, and describe how Monte Carlo sampling techniques can be used to learn its parameters. Reflective slice sampling is particularly well-suited for this distribution, and can efficiently be implemented to sample the distribution. We illustrate learning of the NNBM on a transiationally invariant distribution, as well as on a generative model for images of human faces. Introduction The multivariate Gaussian is the most elementary distribution used to model generic data. It represents the maximum entropy distribution under the constraint that the mean and covariance matrix of the distribution match that of the data. For the case of binary data, the maximum entropy distribution that matches the first and second order statistics of the data is given by the Boltzmann machine [1].

Downs, Oliver B., MacKay, David J. C., Lee, Daniel D.

Downs, Oliver B., MacKay, David J. C., Lee, Daniel D.

The nonnegative Boltzmann machine (NNBM) is a recurrent neural network modelthat can describe multimodal nonnegative data. Application ofmaximum likelihood estimation to this model gives a learning rule that is analogous to the binary Boltzmann machine. We examine the utility of the mean field approximation for the NNBM, and describe how Monte Carlo sampling techniques can be used to learn its parameters. Reflective slicesampling is particularly well-suited for this distribution, and can efficiently be implemented to sample the distribution. We illustrate learning of the NNBM on a transiationally invariant distribution, as well as on a generative model for images of human faces. Introduction The multivariate Gaussian is the most elementary distribution used to model generic data.

Nair, Vinod, Hinton, Geoffrey E.

We present a mixture model whose components are Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs). This possibility has not been considered before because computing the partition function of an RBM is intractable, which appears to make learning a mixture of RBMs intractable as well. Surprisingly, when formulated as a third-order Boltzmann machine, such a mixture model can be learned tractably using contrastive divergence. The energy function of the model captures three-way interactions among visible units, hidden units, and a single hidden multinomial unit that represents the cluster labels. The distinguishing feature of this model is that, unlike other mixture models, the mixing proportions are not explicitly parameterized.