Chatter Diagnosis in Milling Using Supervised Learning and Topological Features Vector Machine Learning

Chatter detection has become a prominent subject of interest due to its effect on cutting tool life, surface finish and spindle of machine tool. Most of the existing methods in chatter detection literature are based on signal processing and signal decomposition. In this study, we use topological features of data simulating cutting tool vibrations, combined with four supervised machine learning algorithms to diagnose chatter in the milling process. Persistence diagrams, a method of representing topological features, are not easily used in the context of machine learning, so they must be transformed into a form that is more amenable. Specifically, we will focus on two different methods for featurizing persistence diagrams, Carlsson coordinates and template functions. In this paper, we provide classification results for simulated data from various cutting configurations, including upmilling and downmilling, in addition to the same data with some added noise. Our results show that Carlsson Coordinates and Template Functions yield accuracies as high as 96% and 95%, respectively. We also provide evidence that these topological methods are noise robust descriptors for chatter detection.

Topological Feature Vectors for Chatter Detection in Turning Processes Machine Learning

Machining processes are most accurately described using complex dynamical systems that include nonlinearities, time delays and stochastic effects. Due to the nature of these models as well as the practical challenges which include time-varying parameters, the transition from numerical/analytical modeling of machining to the analysis of real cutting signals remains challenging. Some studies have focused on studying the time series of cutting processes using machine learning algorithms with the goal of identifying and predicting undesirable vibrations during machining referred to as chatter. These tools typically decompose the signal using Wavelet Packet Transforms (WPT) or Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD). However, these methods require a significant overhead in identifying the feature vectors before a classifier can be trained. In this study, we present an alternative approach based on featurizing the time series of the cutting process using its topological features. We utilize support vector machine classifier combined with feature vectors derived from persistence diagrams, a tool from persistent homology, to encode distinguishing characteristics based on embedding the time series as a point cloud using Takens embedding. We present the results for several choices of the topological feature vectors, and we compare our results to the WPT and EEMD methods using experimental time series from a turning cutting test. Our results show that in most cases combining the TDA-based features with a simple Support Vector Machine (SVM) yields accuracies that either exceed or are within the error bounds of their WPT and EEMD counterparts.

Chatter Detection in Turning Using Machine Learning and Similarity Measures of Time Series via Dynamic Time Warping Machine Learning

Chatter detection from sensor signals has been an active field of research. While some success has been reported using several featurization tools and machine learning algorithms, existing methods have several drawbacks such as manual preprocessing and requiring a large data set. In this paper, we present an alternative approach for chatter detection based on K-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) algorithm for classification and the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) as a time series similarity measure. The used time series are the acceleration signals acquired from the tool holder in a series of turning experiments. Our results, show that this approach achieves detection accuracies that in most cases outperform existing methods. We compare our results to the traditional methods based on Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT) and the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD), as well as to the more recent Topological Data Analysis (TDA) based approach. We show that in three out of four cutting configurations our DTW-based approach attains the highest average classification rate reaching in one case as high as 99% accuracy. Our approach does not require feature extraction, is capable of reusing a classifier across different cutting configurations, and it uses reasonably sized training sets. Although the resulting high accuracy in our approach is associated with high computational cost, this is specific to the DTW implementation that we used. Specifically, we highlight available, very fast DTW implementations that can even be implemented on small consumer electronics. Therefore, further code optimization and the significantly reduced computational effort during the implementation phase make our approach a viable option for in-process chatter detection.

Sinkhorn Divergence of Topological Signature Estimates for Time Series Classification Machine Learning

Distinguishing between classes of time series sampled from dynamic systems is a common challenge in systems and control engineering, for example in the context of health monitoring, fault detection, and quality control. The challenge is increased when no underlying model of a system is known, measurement noise is present, and long signals need to be interpreted. In this paper we address these issues with a new non parametric classifier based on topological signatures. Our model learns classes as weighted kernel density estimates (KDEs) over persistent homology diagrams and predicts new trajectory labels using Sinkhorn divergences on the space of diagram KDEs to quantify proximity. We show that this approach accurately discriminates between states of chaotic systems that are close in parameter space, and its performance is robust to noise.

A Stable Cardinality Distance for Topological Classification Machine Learning

This work incorporates topological and geometric features via persistence diagrams to classify point cloud data arising from materials science. Persistence diagrams are planar sets that summarize the shape details of given data. A new metric on persistence diagrams generates input features for the classification algorithm. The metric accounts for the similarity of persistence diagrams using a linear combination of matching costs and cardinality differences. Investigation of the stability properties of this metric provides theoretical justification for the use of the metric for comparisons of such diagrams. The crystal structure of materials are successfully classified based on noisy and sparse data retrieved from synthetic Atomic Probe Tomography experiments.