The rising demand for electricity and its essential nature in today's world calls for intelligent home energy management (HEM) systems that can reduce energy usage. This involves scheduling of loads from peak hours of the day when energy consumption is at its highest to leaner off-peak periods of the day when energy consumption is relatively lower thereby reducing the system's peak load demand, which would consequently result in lesser energy bills, and improved load demand profile. This work introduces a novel way to develop a learning system that can learn from experience to shift loads from one time instance to another and achieve the goal of minimizing the aggregate peak load. This paper proposes a Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) model for demand response where the virtual agent learns the task like humans do. The agent gets feedback for every action it takes in the environment; these feedbacks will drive the agent to learn about the environment and take much smarter steps later in its learning stages. Our method outperformed the state of the art mixed integer linear programming (MILP) for load peak reduction. The authors have also designed an agent to learn to minimize both consumers' electricity bills and utilities' system peak load demand simultaneously. The proposed model was analyzed with loads from five different residential consumers; the proposed method increases the monthly savings of each consumer by reducing their electricity bill drastically along with minimizing the peak load on the system when time shiftable loads are handled by the proposed method.
Classical methods to control heating systems are often marred by suboptimal performance, inability to adapt to dynamic conditions and unreasonable assumptions e.g. existence of building models. This paper presents a novel deep reinforcement learning algorithm which can control space heating in buildings in a computationally efficient manner, and benchmarks it against other known techniques. The proposed algorithm outperforms rule based control by between 5-10% in a simulation environment for a number of price signals. We conclude that, while not optimal, the proposed algorithm offers additional practical advantages such as faster computation times and increased robustness to non-stationarities in building dynamics.
The area of building energy management has received a significant amount of interest in recent years. This area is concerned with combining advancements in sensor technologies, communications and advanced control algorithms to optimize energy utilization. Reinforcement learning is one of the most prominent machine learning algorithms used for control problems and has had many successful applications in the area of building energy management. This research gives a comprehensive review of the literature relating to the application of reinforcement learning to developing autonomous building energy management systems. The main direction for future research and challenges in reinforcement learning are also outlined.
Recently, tremendous interest has been devoted to develop data fusion strategies for energy efficiency in buildings, where various kinds of information can be processed. However, applying the appropriate data fusion strategy to design an efficient energy efficiency system is not straightforward; it requires a priori knowledge of existing fusion strategies, their applications and their properties. To this regard, seeking to provide the energy research community with a better understanding of data fusion strategies in building energy saving systems, their principles, advantages, and potential applications, this paper proposes an extensive survey of existing data fusion mechanisms deployed to reduce excessive consumption and promote sustainability. We investigate their conceptualizations, advantages, challenges and drawbacks, as well as performing a taxonomy of existing data fusion strategies and other contributing factors. Following, a comprehensive comparison of the state-of-the-art data fusion based energy efficiency frameworks is conducted using various parameters, including data fusion level, data fusion techniques, behavioral change influencer, behavioral change incentive, recorded data, platform architecture, IoT technology and application scenario. Moreover, a novel method for electrical appliance identification is proposed based on the fusion of 2D local texture descriptors, where 1D power signals are transformed into 2D space and treated as images. The empirical evaluation, conducted on three real datasets, shows promising performance, in which up to 99.68% accuracy and 99.52% F1 score have been attained. In addition, various open research challenges and future orientations to improve data fusion based energy efficiency ecosystems are explored.
The problem of probabilistic forecasting and online simulation of real-time electricity market with stochastic generation and demand is considered. By exploiting the parametric structure of the direct current optimal power flow, a new technique based on online dictionary learning (ODL) is proposed. The ODL approach incorporates real-time measurements and historical traces to produce forecasts of joint and marginal probability distributions of future locational marginal prices, power flows, and dispatch levels, conditional on the system state at the time of forecasting. Compared with standard Monte Carlo simulation techniques, the ODL approach offers several orders of magnitude improvement in computation time, making it feasible for online forecasting of market operations. Numerical simulations on large and moderate size power systems illustrate its performance and complexity features and its potential as a tool for system operators.