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### PointPainting: Sequential Fusion for 3D Object Detection

Camera and lidar are important sensor modalities for robotics in general and self-driving cars in particular. The sensors provide complementary information offering an opportunity for tight sensor-fusion. Surprisingly, lidar-only methods outperform fusion methods on the main benchmark datasets, suggesting a gap in the literature. In this work, we propose PointPainting: a sequential fusion method to fill this gap. PointPainting works by projecting lidar points into the output of an image-only semantic segmentation network and appending the class scores to each point. The appended (painted) point cloud can then be fed to any lidar-only method. Experiments show large improvements on three different state-of-the art methods, Point-RCNN, VoxelNet and PointPillars on the KITTI and nuScenes datasets. The painted version of PointRCNN represents a new state of the art on the KITTI leaderboard for the bird's-eye view detection task. In ablation, we study how the effects of Painting depends on the quality and format of the semantic segmentation output, and demonstrate how latency can be minimized through pipelining.

### Semantic Segmentation for Urban Planning Maps based on U-Net

The automatic digitizing of paper maps is a significant and challenging task for both academia and industry. As an important procedure of map digitizing, the semantic segmentation section mainly relies on manual visual interpretation with low efficiency. In this study, we select urban planning maps as a representative sample and investigate the feasibility of utilizing U-shape fully convolutional based architecture to perform end-to-end map semantic segmentation. The experimental results obtained from the test area in Shibuya district, Tokyo, demonstrate that our proposed method could achieve a very high Jaccard similarity coefficient of 93.63% and an overall accuracy of 99.36%. For implementation on GPGPU and cuDNN, the required processing time for the whole Shibuya district can be less than three minutes. The results indicate the proposed method can serve as a viable tool for urban planning map semantic segmentation task with high accuracy and efficiency.

### r/deeplearning - Semantic Segmentation

I have to classify a point(0 or 1) by its position in image and a pre calculated score. I was thinking to a discriminative classifier. Do you have any idea of model that I could try, maybe a neural network?

### Hidden Backdoor Attack against Semantic Segmentation Models

Deep neural networks (DNNs) are vulnerable to the \emph{backdoor attack}, which intends to embed hidden backdoors in DNNs by poisoning training data. The attacked model behaves normally on benign samples, whereas its prediction will be changed to a particular target label if hidden backdoors are activated. So far, backdoor research has mostly been conducted towards classification tasks. In this paper, we reveal that this threat could also happen in semantic segmentation, which may further endanger many mission-critical applications ($e.g.$, autonomous driving). Except for extending the existing attack paradigm to maliciously manipulate the segmentation models from the image-level, we propose a novel attack paradigm, the \emph{fine-grained attack}, where we treat the target label ($i.e.$, annotation) from the object-level instead of the image-level to achieve more sophisticated manipulation. In the annotation of poisoned samples generated by the fine-grained attack, only pixels of specific objects will be labeled with the attacker-specified target class while others are still with their ground-truth ones. Experiments show that the proposed methods can successfully attack semantic segmentation models by poisoning only a small proportion of training data. Our method not only provides a new perspective for designing novel attacks but also serves as a strong baseline for improving the robustness of semantic segmentation methods.

### Multi Modal Semantic Segmentation using Synthetic Data

--Semantic understanding of scenes in three-dimensional space (3D) is a quintessential part of robotics oriented applications such as autonomous driving as it provides geometric cues such as size, orientation and true distance of separation to objects which are crucial for taking mission critical decisions. As a first step, in this work we investigate the possibility of semantically classifying different parts of a given scene in 3D by learning the underlying geometric context in addition to the texture cues BUT in the absence of labelled real-world datasets. T o this end we generate a large number of synthetic scenes, their pixel-wise labels and corresponding 3D representations using CARLA software framework. We then build a deep neural network that learns underlying category specific 3D representation and texture cues from color information of the rendered synthetic scenes. Further on we apply the learned model on different real world datasets to evaluate its performance. Our preliminary investigation of results show that the neural network is able to learn the geometric context from synthetic scenes and effectively apply this knowledge to classify each point of a 3D representation of a scene in real-world.