While state-of-the-art kernels for graphs with discrete labels scale well to graphs with thousands of nodes, the few existing kernels for graphs with continuous attributes, unfortunately, do not scale well. To overcome this limitation, we present hash graph kernels, a general framework to derive kernels for graphs with continuous attributes from discrete ones. The idea is to iteratively turn continuous attributes into discrete labels using randomized hash functions. We illustrate hash graph kernels for the Weisfeiler-Lehman subtree kernel and for the shortest-path kernel. The resulting novel graph kernels are shown to be, both, able to handle graphs with continuous attributes and scalable to large graphs and data sets. This is supported by our theoretical analysis and demonstrated by an extensive experimental evaluation.
We introduce a family of multilayer graph kernels and establish new links between graph convolutional neural networks and kernel methods. Our approach generalizes convolutional kernel networks to graph-structured data, by representing graphs as a sequence of kernel feature maps, where each node carries information about local graph substructures. On the one hand, the kernel point of view offers an unsupervised, expressive, and easy-to-regularize data representation, which is useful when limited samples are available. On the other hand, our model can also be trained end-to-end on large-scale data, leading to new types of graph convolutional neural networks. We show that our method achieves competitive performance on several graph classification benchmarks, while offering simple model interpretation. Our code is freely available at https://github.com/claying/GCKN.