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Feature Construction for Inverse Reinforcement Learning

Neural Information Processing Systems

The goal of inverse reinforcement learning is to find a reward function for a Markov decision process, given example traces from its optimal policy. Current IRL techniques generally rely on user-supplied features that form a concise basis for the reward. We present an algorithm that instead constructs reward features from a large collection of component features, by building logical conjunctions of those component features that are relevant to the example policy. Given example traces, the algorithm returns a reward function as well as the constructed features. The reward function can be used to recover a full, deterministic, stationary policy, and the features can be used to transplant the reward function into any novel environment on which the component features are well defined.


Linear Feature Encoding for Reinforcement Learning

Neural Information Processing Systems

Feature construction is of vital importance in reinforcement learning, as the quality of a value function or policy is largely determined by the corresponding features. Typical deep RL approaches use a linear output layer, which means that deep RL can be interpreted as a feature construction/encoding network followed by linear value function approximation. This paper develops and evaluates a theory of linear feature encoding. We extend theoretical results on feature quality for linear value function approximation from the uncontrolled case to the controlled case. We then develop a supervised linear feature encoding method that is motivated by insights from linear value function approximation theory, as well as empirical successes from deep RL.


Nonparametric Bayesian Inverse Reinforcement Learning for Multiple Reward Functions

Neural Information Processing Systems

We present a nonparametric Bayesian approach to inverse reinforcement learning (IRL) for multiple reward functions. Most previous IRL algorithms assume that the behaviour data is obtained from an agent who is optimizing a single reward function, but this assumption is hard to be met in practice. Our approach is based on integrating the Dirichlet process mixture model into Bayesian IRL. We provide an efficient Metropolis-Hastings sampling algorithm utilizing the gradient of the posterior to estimate the underlying reward functions, and demonstrate that our approach outperforms the previous ones via experiments on a number of problem domains. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.


Risk-Sensitive Reinforcement Learning Applied to Control under Constraints

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

In this paper, we consider Markov Decision Processes (MDPs) with error states. Error states are those states entering which is undesirable or dangerous. We define the risk with respect to a policy as the probability of entering such a state when the policy is pursued. We consider the problem of finding good policies whose risk is smaller than some user-specified threshold, and formalize it as a constrained MDP with two criteria. The first criterion corresponds to the value function originally given.


Learning to Drive using Inverse Reinforcement Learning and Deep Q-Networks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We propose an inverse reinforcement learning (IRL) approach using Deep Q-Networks to extract the rewards in problems with large state spaces. We evaluate the performance of this approach in a simulation-based autonomous driving scenario. Our results resemble the intuitive relation between the reward function and readings of distance sensors mounted at different poses on the car. We also show that, after a few learning rounds, our simulated agent generates collision-free motions and performs human-like lane change behaviour.