Decades of research in artificial intelligence (AI) have produced formidable technologies that are providing immense benefit to industry, government, and society. AI systems can now translate across multiple languages, identify objects in images and video, streamline manufacturing processes, and control cars. The deployment of AI systems has not only created a trillion-dollar industry that is projected to quadruple in three years, but has also exposed the need to make AI systems fair, explainable, trustworthy, and secure. Future AI systems will rightfully be expected to reason effectively about the world in which they (and people) operate, handling complex tasks and responsibilities effectively and ethically, engaging in meaningful communication, and improving their awareness through experience. Achieving the full potential of AI technologies poses research challenges that require a radical transformation of the AI research enterprise, facilitated by significant and sustained investment. These are the major recommendations of a recent community effort coordinated by the Computing Community Consortium and the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence to formulate a Roadmap for AI research and development over the next two decades.
We discuss deep reinforcement learning in an overview style. We draw a big picture, filled with details. We discuss six core elements, six important mechanisms, and twelve applications, focusing on contemporary work, and in historical contexts. We start with background of artificial intelligence, machine learning, deep learning, and reinforcement learning (RL), with resources. Next we discuss RL core elements, including value function, policy, reward, model, exploration vs. exploitation, and representation. Then we discuss important mechanisms for RL, including attention and memory, unsupervised learning, hierarchical RL, multi-agent RL, relational RL, and learning to learn. After that, we discuss RL applications, including games, robotics, natural language processing (NLP), computer vision, finance, business management, healthcare, education, energy, transportation, computer systems, and, science, engineering, and art. Finally we summarize briefly, discuss challenges and opportunities, and close with an epilogue.
Games have benchmarked AI methods since of a single game, discovering a few new variations on the inception of the field, with classic board games such existing research topics. The set of · Deckbuilding · Gameplaying · Player Modeling AI problems associated with video games has in recent decades expanded from simply playing games to win, to playing games in particular styles, generating game content, 1 Introduction modeling players etc. Different games pose very different challenges for AI systems, and several different For decades classic board games such as Chess, Checkers, AI challenges can typically be posed by the same and Go have dominated the landscape of AI and game. In this article we analyze the popular collectible games research. Often called the "drosophila of AI" in card game Hearthstone (Blizzard 2014) and describe reference to the drosophila fly's significance in biological a varied set of interesting AI challenges posed by this research, Chess in particular has been the subject game. Collectible card games are relatively understudied of hundreds of academic papers and decades of research in the AI community, despite their popularity and . At the core of many of these approaches is designing the interesting challenges they pose. Analyzing a single algorithms to beat top human players. However, game in-depth in the manner we do here allows us to despite IBM's Deep Blue defeating Garry Kasparov in see the entire field of AI and Games through the lens the 1997 World Chess Championships and DeepMind's AlphaGo defeating Lee Sedol in the 2016 Google Deep-Mind Challenge Match , such programs have yet While there is value in designing algorithms to win (e.g.