Bayesian CP Factorization of Incomplete Tensors with Automatic Rank Determination Machine Learning

CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) tensor factorization of incomplete data is a powerful technique for tensor completion through explicitly capturing the multilinear latent factors. The existing CP algorithms require the tensor rank to be manually specified, however, the determination of tensor rank remains a challenging problem especially for CP rank. In addition, existing approaches do not take into account uncertainty information of latent factors, as well as missing entries. To address these issues, we formulate CP factorization using a hierarchical probabilistic model and employ a fully Bayesian treatment by incorporating a sparsity-inducing prior over multiple latent factors and the appropriate hyperpriors over all hyperparameters, resulting in automatic rank determination. To learn the model, we develop an efficient deterministic Bayesian inference algorithm, which scales linearly with data size. Our method is characterized as a tuning parameter-free approach, which can effectively infer underlying multilinear factors with a low-rank constraint, while also providing predictive distributions over missing entries. Extensive simulations on synthetic data illustrate the intrinsic capability of our method to recover the ground-truth of CP rank and prevent the overfitting problem, even when a large amount of entries are missing. Moreover, the results from real-world applications, including image inpainting and facial image synthesis, demonstrate that our method outperforms state-of-the-art approaches for both tensor factorization and tensor completion in terms of predictive performance.

Prediction of multi-dimensional spatial variation data via Bayesian tensor completion Machine Learning

This paper presents a multi-dimensional computational method to predict the spatial variation data inside and across multiple dies of a wafer. This technique is based on tensor computation. A tensor is a high-dimensional generalization of a matrix or a vector. By exploiting the hidden low-rank property of a high-dimensional data array, the large amount of unknown variation testing data may be predicted from a few random measurement samples. The tensor rank, which decides the complexity of a tensor representation, is decided by an available variational Bayesian approach. Our approach is validated by a practical chip testing data set, and it can be easily generalized to characterize the process variations of multiple wafers. Our approach is more efficient than the previous virtual probe techniques in terms of memory and computational cost when handling high-dimensional chip testing data.

Bayesian Sparse Tucker Models for Dimension Reduction and Tensor Completion Machine Learning

Tucker decomposition is the cornerstone of modern machine learning on tensorial data analysis, which have attracted considerable attention for multiway feature extraction, compressive sensing, and tensor completion. The most challenging problem is related to determination of model complexity (i.e., multilinear rank), especially when noise and missing data are present. In addition, existing methods cannot take into account uncertainty information of latent factors, resulting in low generalization performance. To address these issues, we present a class of probabilistic generative Tucker models for tensor decomposition and completion with structural sparsity over multilinear latent space. To exploit structural sparse modeling, we introduce two group sparsity inducing priors by hierarchial representation of Laplace and Student-t distributions, which facilitates fully posterior inference. For model learning, we derived variational Bayesian inferences over all model (hyper)parameters, and developed efficient and scalable algorithms based on multilinear operations. Our methods can automatically adapt model complexity and infer an optimal multilinear rank by the principle of maximum lower bound of model evidence. Experimental results and comparisons on synthetic, chemometrics and neuroimaging data demonstrate remarkable performance of our models for recovering ground-truth of multilinear rank and missing entries.

Tensor Completion Algorithms in Big Data Analytics Machine Learning

Tensor completion is a problem of filling the missing or unobserved entries of partially observed tensors. Due to the multidimensional character of tensors in describing complex datasets, tensor completion algorithms and their applications have received wide attention and achievement in data mining, computer vision, signal processing, and neuroscience, etc. In this survey, we provide a modern overview of recent advances in tensor completion algorithms from the perspective of big data analytics characterized by diverse variety, large volume, and high velocity. Towards a better comprehension and comparison of vast existing advances, we summarize and categorize them into four groups including general tensor completion algorithms, tensor completion with auxiliary information (variety), scalable tensor completion algorithms (volume) and dynamic tensor completion algorithms (velocity). Besides, we introduce their applications on real-world data-driven problems and present an open-source package covering several widely used tensor decomposition and completion algorithms. Our goal is to summarize these popular methods and introduce them to researchers for promoting the research process in this field and give an available repository for practitioners. In the end, we also discuss some challenges and promising research directions in this community for future explorations.

Bayesian Tensorized Neural Networks with Automatic Rank Selection Machine Learning

Tensor decomposition is an effective approach to compress over-parameterized neural networks and to enable their deployment on resource-constrained hardware platforms. However, directly applying tensor compression in the training process is a challenging task due to the difficulty of choosing a proper tensor rank. In order to achieve this goal, this paper proposes a Bayesian tensorized neural network. Our Bayesian method performs automatic model compression via an adaptive tensor rank determination. We also present approaches for posterior density calculation and maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation for the end-to-end training of our tensorized neural network. We provide experimental validation on a fully connected neural network, a CNN and a residual neural network where our work produces $7.4\times$ to $137\times$ more compact neural networks directly from the training.