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A random forest system combination approach for error detection in digital dictionaries

arXiv.org Machine Learning

When digitizing a print bilingual dictionary, whether via optical character recognition or manual entry, it is inevitable that errors are introduced into the electronic version that is created. We investigate automating the process of detecting errors in an XML representation of a digitized print dictionary using a hybrid approach that combines rule-based, feature-based, and language model-based methods. We investigate combining methods and show that using random forests is a promising approach. We find that in isolation, unsupervised methods rival the performance of supervised methods. Random forests typically require training data so we investigate how we can apply random forests to combine individual base methods that are themselves unsupervised without requiring large amounts of training data. Experiments reveal empirically that a relatively small amount of data is sufficient and can potentially be further reduced through specific selection criteria.


A context sensitive real-time Spell Checker with language adaptability

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We present a novel language adaptable spell checking system which detects spelling errors and suggests context sensitive corrections in real-time. We show that our system can be extended to new languages with minimal language-specific processing. Available literature majorly discusses spell checkers for English but there are no publicly available systems which can be extended to work for other languages out of the box. Most of the systems do not work in real-time. We explain the process of generating a language's word dictionary and n-gram probability dictionaries using Wikipedia-articles data and manually curated video subtitles. We present the results of generating a list of suggestions for a misspelled word. We also propose three approaches to create noisy channel datasets of real-world typographic errors. We compare our system with industry-accepted spell checker tools for 11 languages. Finally, we show the performance of our system on synthetic datasets for 24 languages.


Detecting Spacecraft Anomalies Using LSTMs and Nonparametric Dynamic Thresholding

arXiv.org Machine Learning

As spacecraft send back increasing amounts of telemetry data, improved anomaly detection systems are needed to lessen the monitoring burden placed on operations engineers and reduce operational risk. Current spacecraft monitoring systems only target a subset of anomaly types and often require costly expert knowledge to develop and maintain due to challenges involving scale and complexity. We demonstrate the effectiveness of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTMs) networks, a type of Recurrent Neural Network (RNN), in overcoming these issues using expert-labeled telemetry anomaly data from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite and the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity. We also propose a complementary unsupervised and nonparametric anomaly thresholding approach developed during a pilot implementation of an anomaly detection system for SMAP, and offer false positive mitigation strategies along with other key improvements and lessons learned during development.


Using Global Constraints and Reranking to Improve Cognates Detection

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Global constraints and reranking have not been used in cognates detection research to date. We propose methods for using global constraints by performing rescoring of the score matrices produced by state of the art cognates detection systems. Using global constraints to perform rescoring is complementary to state of the art methods for performing cognates detection and results in significant performance improvements beyond current state of the art performance on publicly available datasets with different language pairs and various conditions such as different levels of baseline state of the art performance and different data size conditions, including with more realistic large data size conditions than have been evaluated with in the past.


ED2: Two-stage Active Learning for Error Detection -- Technical Report

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Traditional error detection approaches require user-defined parameters and rules. Thus, the user has to know both the error detection system and the data. However, we can also formulate error detection as a semi-supervised classification problem that only requires domain expertise. The challenges for such an approach are twofold: (1) to represent the data in a way that enables a classification model to identify various kinds of data errors, and (2) to pick the most promising data values for learning. In this paper, we address these challenges with ED2, our new example-driven error detection method. First, we present a new two-dimensional multi-classifier sampling strategy for active learning. Second, we propose novel multi-column features. The combined application of these techniques provides fast convergence of the classification task with high detection accuracy. On several real-world datasets, ED2 requires, on average, less than 1% labels to outperform existing error detection approaches. This report extends the peer-reviewed paper "ED2: A Case for Active Learning in Error Detection". All source code related to this project is available on GitHub.