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Semi-Markov Conditional Random Fields for Information Extraction

Neural Information Processing Systems

We describe semi-Markov conditional random fields (semi-CRFs), a conditionally trainedversion of semi-Markov chains. Intuitively, a semi-CRF on an input sequence x outputs a "segmentation" of x, in which labels are assigned to segments (i.e., subsequences) of x rather than to individual elements x


Performance Limits of Dictionary Learning for Sparse Coding

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We consider the problem of dictionary learning under the assumption that the observed signals can be represented as sparse linear combinations of the columns of a single large dictionary matrix. In particular, we analyze the minimax risk of the dictionary learning problem which governs the mean squared error (MSE) performance of any learning scheme, regardless of its computational complexity. By following an established information-theoretic method based on Fanos inequality, we derive a lower bound on the minimax risk for a given dictionary learning problem. This lower bound yields a characterization of the sample-complexity, i.e., a lower bound on the required number of observations such that consistent dictionary learning schemes exist. Our bounds may be compared with the performance of a given learning scheme, allowing to characterize how far the method is from optimal performance.


Compressed Online Dictionary Learning for Fast fMRI Decomposition

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We present a method for fast resting-state fMRI spatial decomposi-tions of very large datasets, based on the reduction of the temporal dimension before applying dictionary learning on concatenated individual records from groups of subjects. Introducing a measure of correspondence between spatial decompositions of rest fMRI, we demonstrates that time-reduced dictionary learning produces result as reliable as non-reduced decompositions. We also show that this reduction significantly improves computational scalability.


Multiple Instance Dictionary Learning using Functions of Multiple Instances

arXiv.org Machine Learning

A multiple instance dictionary learning method using functions of multiple instances (DL-FUMI) is proposed to address target detection and two-class classification problems with inaccurate training labels. Given inaccurate training labels, DL-FUMI learns a set of target dictionary atoms that describe the most distinctive and representative features of the true positive class as well as a set of nontarget dictionary atoms that account for the shared information found in both the positive and negative instances. Experimental results show that the estimated target dictionary atoms found by DL-FUMI are more representative prototypes and identify better discriminative features of the true positive class than existing methods in the literature. DL-FUMI is shown to have significantly better performance on several target detection and classification problems as compared to other multiple instance learning (MIL) dictionary learning algorithms on a variety of MIL problems.


Online L1-Dictionary Learning with Application to Novel Document Detection

Neural Information Processing Systems

Given their pervasive use, social media, such as Twitter, have become a leading source of breaking news. A key task in the automated identification of such news is the detection of novel documents from a voluminous stream of text documents in a scalable manner. Motivated by this challenge, we introduce the problem of online L1-dictionary learning where unlike traditional dictionary learning, which uses squared loss, the L1-penalty is used for measuring the reconstruction error. We present an efficient online algorithm for this problem based on alternating directions method of multipliers, and establish a sublinear regret bound for this algorithm. Empirical results on news-stream and Twitter data, shows that this online L1-dictionary learning algorithm for novel document detection gives more than an order of magnitude speedup over the previously known batch algorithm, without any significant loss in quality of results. Our algorithm for online L1-dictionary learning could be of independent interest.