When sufficient labeled data are available, classical criteria based on Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) or Precision-Recall (PR) curves can be used to compare the performance of un-supervised anomaly detection algorithms. However , in many situations, few or no data are labeled. This calls for alternative criteria one can compute on non-labeled data. In this paper, two criteria that do not require labels are empirically shown to discriminate accurately (w.r.t. ROC or PR based criteria) between algorithms. These criteria are based on existing Excess-Mass (EM) and Mass-Volume (MV) curves, which generally cannot be well estimated in large dimension. A methodology based on feature sub-sampling and aggregating is also described and tested, extending the use of these criteria to high-dimensional datasets and solving major drawbacks inherent to standard EM and MV curves.
We propose an adaptive sampling approach for multiple testing which aims to maximize statistical power while ensuring anytime false discovery control. We consider $n$ distributions whose means are partitioned by whether they are below or equal to a baseline (nulls), versus above the baseline (actual positives). In addition, each distribution can be sequentially and repeatedly sampled. Inspired by the multi-armed bandit literature, we provide an algorithm that takes as few samples as possible to exceed a target true positive proportion (i.e. proportion of actual positives discovered) while giving anytime control of the false discovery proportion (nulls predicted as actual positives). Our sample complexity results match known information theoretic lower bounds and through simulations we show a substantial performance improvement over uniform sampling and an adaptive elimination style algorithm. Given the simplicity of the approach, and its sample efficiency, the method has promise for wide adoption in the biological sciences, clinical testing for drug discovery, and online A/B/n testing problems.
A novel dynamic Bayesian nonparametric topic model for anomaly detection in video is proposed in this paper. Batch and online Gibbs samplers are developed for inference. The paper introduces a new abnormality measure for decision making. The proposed method is evaluated on both synthetic and real data. The comparison with a non-dynamic model shows the superiority of the proposed dynamic one in terms of the classification performance for anomaly detection.
The Large Hadron Collider at CERN is one of the world's largest scientific instruments. It captures 5 trillion bits of data every second, and the Geneva-based lab employs a dedicated group of experts to manage the flow. In contrast, the instrument shown here – known as a time-stretch quantitative phase imaging microscope – fits on a bench top, and is managed by a team of one. However, it is also capable of capturing an immense amount of data: 0.8 trillion bits per second. These two examples illustrate just how ubiquitous "big data" has become in physics.