Amounts of historical data collected increase together with business intelligence applicability and demands for automatic forecasting of time series. While no single time series modeling method is universal to all types of dynamics, forecasting using ensemble of several methods is often seen as a compromise. Instead of fixing ensemble diversity and size we propose to adaptively predict these aspects using meta-learning. Meta-learning here considers two separate random forest regression models, built on 390 time series features, to rank 22 univariate forecasting methods and to recommend ensemble size. Forecasting ensemble is consequently formed from methods ranked as the best and forecasts are pooled using either simple or weighted average (with weight corresponding to reciprocal rank). Proposed approach was tested on 12561 micro-economic time series (expanded to 38633 for various forecasting horizons) of M4 competition where meta-learning outperformed Theta and Comb benchmarks by relative forecasting errors for all data types and horizons. Best overall results were achieved by weighted pooling with symmetric mean absolute percentage error of 9.21% versus 11.05% obtained using Theta method.
Accurate forecasting is important for decision-makers. Recently, the Amazon rainforest is reaching record levels of the number of fires, a situation that concerns both climate and public health problems. Obtaining the desired forecasting accuracy becomes difficult and challenging. In this paper were developed a novel heterogeneous decomposition-ensemble model by using Seasonal and Trend decomposition based on Loess in combination with algorithms for short-term load forecasting multi-month-ahead, to explore temporal patterns of Amazon rainforest fires in Brazil. The results demonstrate the proposed decomposition-ensemble models can provide more accurate forecasting evaluated by performance measures. Diebold-Mariano statistical test showed the proposed models are better than other compared models, but it is statistically equal to one of them.
This work presents ensemble forecasting of monthly electricity demand using pattern similarity-based forecasting methods (PSFMs). PSFMs applied in this study include $k$-nearest neighbor model, fuzzy neighborhood model, kernel regression model, and general regression neural network. An integral part of PSFMs is a time series representation using patterns of time series sequences. Pattern representation ensures the input and output data unification through filtering a trend and equalizing variance. Two types of ensembles are created: heterogeneous and homogeneous. The former consists of different type base models, while the latter consists of a single-type base model. Five strategies are used for controlling a diversity of members in a homogeneous approach. The diversity is generated using different subsets of training data, different subsets of features, randomly disrupted input and output variables, and randomly disrupted model parameters. An empirical illustration applies the ensemble models as well as individual PSFMs for comparison to the monthly electricity demand forecasting for 35 European countries.
With the increasing penetration of solar power into power systems, forecasting becomes critical in power system operations. In this paper, an hourly-similarity (HS) based method is developed for 1-hour-ahead (1HA) global horizontal irradiance (GHI) forecasting. This developed method utilizes diurnal patterns, statistical distinctions between different hours, and hourly similarities in solar data to improve the forecasting accuracy. The HS-based method is built by training multiple two-layer multi-model forecasting framework (MMFF) models independently with the same-hour subsets. The final optimal model is a combination of MMFF models with the best-performed blending algorithm at every hour. At the forecasting stage, the most suitable model is selected to perform the forecasting subtask of a certain hour. The HS-based method is validated by 1-year data with six solar features collected by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Results show that the HS-based method outperforms the non-HS (all-in-one) method significantly with the same MMFF architecture, wherein the optimal HS- based method outperforms the best all-in-one method by 10.94% and 7.74% based on the normalized mean absolute error and normalized root mean square error, respectively.
Pattern similarity-based methods are widely used in classification and regression problems. Repeated, similar-shaped cycles observed in seasonal time series encourage to apply these methods for forecasting. In this paper we use the pattern similarity-based methods for forecasting monthly electricity demand expressing annual seasonality. An integral part of the models is the time series representation using patterns of time series sequences. Pattern representation ensures the input and output data unification through trend filtering and variance equalization. Consequently, pattern representation simplifies the forecasting problem and allows us to use models based on pattern similarity. We consider four such models: nearest neighbor model, fuzzy neighborhood model, kernel regression model and general regression neural network. A regression function is constructed by aggregation output patterns with weights dependent on the similarity between input patterns. The advantages of the proposed models are: clear principle of operation, small number of parameters to adjust, fast optimization procedure, good generalization ability, working on the newest data without retraining, robustness to missing input variables, and generating a vector as an output. In the experimental part of the work the proposed models were used to forecasting the monthly demand for 35 European countries. The model performances were compared with the performances of the classical models such as ARIMA and exponential smoothing as well as state-of-the-art models such as multilayer perceptron, neuro-fuzzy system and long short-term memory model. The results show high performance of the proposed models which outperform the comparative models in accuracy, simplicity and ease of optimization.