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How Does Adversarial Fine-Tuning Benefit BERT?

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Adversarial training (AT) is one of the most reliable methods for defending against adversarial attacks in machine learning. Variants of this method have been used as regularization mechanisms to achieve SOTA results on NLP benchmarks, and they have been found to be useful for transfer learning and continual learning. We search for the reasons for the effectiveness of AT by contrasting vanilla and adversarially fine-tuned BERT models. We identify partial preservation of BERT's syntactic abilities during fine-tuning as the key to the success of AT. We observe that adversarially fine-tuned models remain more faithful to BERT's language modeling behavior and are more sensitive to the word order. As concrete examples of syntactic abilities, an adversarially fine-tuned model could have an advantage of up to 38% on anaphora agreement and up to 11% on dependency parsing. Our analysis demonstrates that vanilla fine-tuning oversimplifies the sentence representation by focusing heavily on one or a few label-indicative words. AT, however, moderates the effect of these influential words and encourages representational diversity. This allows for a more hierarchical representation of a sentence and leads to the mitigation of BERT's loss of syntactic abilities.


Impact of Low-bitwidth Quantization on the Adversarial Robustness for Embedded Neural Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

As the will to deploy neural networks models on embedded systems grows, and considering the related memory footprint and energy consumption issues, finding lighter solutions to store neural networks such as weight quantization and more efficient inference methods become major research topics. Parallel to that, adversarial machine learning has risen recently with an impressive and significant attention, unveiling some critical flaws of machine learning models, especially neural networks. In particular, perturbed inputs called adversarial examples have been shown to fool a model into making incorrect predictions. In this article, we investigate the adversarial robustness of quantized neural networks under different threat models for a classical supervised image classification task. We show that quantization does not offer any robust protection, results in severe form of gradient masking and advance some hypotheses to explain it. However, we experimentally observe poor transferability capacities which we explain by quantization value shift phenomenon and gradient misalignment and explore how these results can be exploited with an ensemble-based defense.


Model-Contrastive Federated Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Federated learning enables multiple parties to collaboratively train a machine learning model without communicating their local data. A key challenge in federated learning is to handle the heterogeneity of local data distribution across parties. Although many studies have been proposed to address this challenge, we find that they fail to achieve high performance in image datasets with deep learning models. In this paper, we propose MOON: model-contrastive federated learning. MOON is a simple and effective federated learning framework. The key idea of MOON is to utilize the similarity between model representations to correct the local training of individual parties, i.e., conducting contrastive learning in model-level. Our extensive experiments show that MOON significantly outperforms the other state-of-the-art federated learning algorithms on various image classification tasks.


Shaping the Narrative Arc: An Information-Theoretic Approach to Collaborative Dialogue

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We consider the problem of designing an artificial agent capable of interacting with humans in collaborative dialogue to produce creative, engaging narratives. In this task, the goal is to establish universe details, and to collaborate on an interesting story in that universe, through a series of natural dialogue exchanges. Our model can augment any probabilistic conversational agent by allowing it to reason about universe information established and what potential next utterances might reveal. Ideally, with each utterance, agents would reveal just enough information to add specificity and reduce ambiguity without limiting the conversation. We empirically show that our model allows control over the rate at which the agent reveals information and that doing so significantly improves accuracy in predicting the next line of dialogues from movies. We close with a case-study with four professional theatre performers, who preferred interactions with our model-augmented agent over an unaugmented agent.


Achieving Personalized Federated Learning with Sparse Local Models

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Federated learning (FL) is vulnerable to heterogeneously distributed data, since a common global model in FL may not adapt to the heterogeneous data distribution of each user. To counter this issue, personalized FL (PFL) was proposed to produce dedicated local models for each individual user. However, PFL is far from its maturity, because existing PFL solutions either demonstrate unsatisfactory generalization towards different model architectures or cost enormous extra computation and memory. In this work, we propose federated learning with personalized sparse mask (FedSpa), a novel PFL scheme that employs personalized sparse masks to customize sparse local models on the edge. Instead of training an intact (or dense) PFL model, FedSpa only maintains a fixed number of active parameters throughout training (aka sparse-to-sparse training), which enables users' models to achieve personalization with cheap communication, computation, and memory cost. We theoretically show that the iterates obtained by FedSpa converge to the local minimizer of the formulated SPFL problem at rate of $\mathcal{O}(\frac{1}{\sqrt{T}})$. Comprehensive experiments demonstrate that FedSpa significantly saves communication and computation costs, while simultaneously achieves higher model accuracy and faster convergence speed against several state-of-the-art PFL methods.