Background: A universal unanswered question in neuroscience and machine learning is whether computers can decode the patterns of the human brain. Multi-Voxels Pattern Analysis (MVPA) is a critical tool for addressing this question. However, there are two challenges in the previous MVPA methods, which include decreasing sparsity and noise in the extracted features and increasing the performance of prediction. Methods: In overcoming mentioned challenges, this paper proposes Anatomical Pattern Analysis (APA) for decoding visual stimuli in the human brain. This framework develops a novel anatomical feature extraction method and a new imbalance AdaBoost algorithm for binary classification. Further, it utilizes an Error-Correcting Output Codes (ECOC) method for multiclass prediction. APA can automatically detect active regions for each category of the visual stimuli. Moreover, it enables us to combine homogeneous datasets for applying advanced classification. Results and Conclusions: Experimental studies on 4 visual categories (words, consonants, objects and scrambled photos) demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves superior performance to state-of-the-art methods.
An example of object detection and recognition application. Classifier networks are used to inspect, sort, identify, and discriminate minute details in biological or machine systems that human beings cannot discern. They are used in everything from inspecting spark plugs to face recognition. Classifier networks are becoming the basis of machine vision systems. The students' projects are designed to give them practical experience, and to ground graduate students in the field so that they are able to perform this type of research.
Information mapping is a popular application of Multivoxel Pattern Analysis (MVPA) to fMRI. Information maps are constructed using the so called searchlight method, where the spherical multivoxel neighborhood of every voxel (i.e., a searchlight) in the brain is evaluated for the presence of task-relevant response patterns. Despite their widespread use, information maps present several challenges for interpretation. One such challenge has to do with inferring the size and shape of a multivoxel pattern from its signature on the information map. To address this issue, we formally examined the geometric basis of this mapping relationship. Based on geometric considerations, we show how and why small patterns (i.e., having smaller spatial extents) can produce a larger signature on the information map as compared to large patterns, independent of the size of the searchlight radius. Furthermore, we show that the number of informative searchlights over the brain increase as a function of searchlight radius, even in the complete absence of any multivariate response patterns. These properties are unrelated to the statistical capabilities of the pattern-analysis algorithms used but are obligatory geometric properties arising from using the searchlight procedure.
In this short tutorial I want to provide a short overview of some of my favorite Python tools for common procedures as entry points for general pattern classification and machine learning tasks, and various other data analyses. In this section want to recommend a way for installing the required Python-packages packages if you have not done so, yet. Otherwise you can skip this part. Although they can be installed step-by-step "manually", but I highly recommend you to take a look at the Anaconda Python distribution for scientific computing. Anaconda is distributed by Continuum Analytics, but it is completely free and includes more than 195 packages for science and data analysis as of today.
Ever wondered why certain countries have certain colors in their flags, why it has certain symbols and what are the different patterns? We started digging through, checking a Wikipedia article on this topic. This was a good start but we wanted to go deeper so we manually started eye balling each flag to understand the patterns and symbols. We needed to figure out what we can extract from the flags and there were three prominent elements. Our task was then to go through each flag and note down all the distinct colors, prominent patterns and symbols.