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Does History Help? An Experiment on How Context Affects Crowdsourcing Dialogue Annotation

AAAI Conferences

Crowds of people can potentially solve some problems faster than individuals. Crowd sourced data can be leveraged to benefit the crowd by providing information or solutions faster than traditional means. Many tasks needed for developing dialogue systems such as annotation can benefit from crowdsourcing as well. We investigate how to outsource dialogue data annotation through Amazon Mechanical Turk. We are in particular interested in empirically analyzing how much context from previous parts of the dialogue (e.g. previous dialogue turns) is needed to be provided before the target part (dialogue turn) is presented to the annotator. The answer to this question is essentially important for leveraging crowd sourced data for appropriate and efficient response and coordination. We study the effect of presenting different numbers of previous data (turns) to the Turkers in annotating sentiments of dyadic negotiation dialogs on the inter annotator reliability and comparison to the gold standard.


LIDA: Lightweight Interactive Dialogue Annotator

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Dialogue systems have the potential to change how people interact with machines but are highly dependent on the quality of the data used to train them. It is therefore important to develop good dialogue annotation tools which can improve the speed and quality of dialogue data annotation. With this in mind, we introduce LIDA, an annotation tool designed specifically for conversation data. As far as we know, LIDA is the first dialogue annotation system that handles the entire dialogue annotation pipeline from raw text, as may be the output of transcription services, to structured conversation data. Furthermore it supports the integration of arbitrary machine learning models as annotation recommenders and also has a dedicated interface to resolve inter-annotator disagreements such as after crowdsourcing annotations for a dataset. LIDA is fully open source, documented and publicly available [ https://github.com/Wluper/lida ]


Semi-Supervised Dialogue Policy Learning via Stochastic Reward Estimation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Dialogue policy optimization often obtains feedback until task completion in task-oriented dialogue systems. This is insufficient for training intermediate dialogue turns since supervision signals (or rewards) are only provided at the end of dialogues. To address this issue, reward learning has been introduced to learn from state-action pairs of an optimal policy to provide turn-by-turn rewards. This approach requires complete state-action annotations of human-to-human dialogues (i.e., expert demonstrations), which is labor intensive. To overcome this limitation, we propose a novel reward learning approach for semi-supervised policy learning. The proposed approach learns a dynamics model as the reward function which models dialogue progress (i.e., state-action sequences) based on expert demonstrations, either with or without annotations. The dynamics model computes rewards by predicting whether the dialogue progress is consistent with expert demonstrations. We further propose to learn action embeddings for a better generalization of the reward function. The proposed approach outperforms competitive policy learning baselines on MultiWOZ, a benchmark multi-domain dataset.


What Went Wrong? Explaining Overall Dialogue Quality through Utterance-Level Impacts

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Improving user experience of a dialogue system often requires intensive developer effort to read conversation logs, run statistical analyses, and intuit the relative importance of system shortcomings. This paper presents a novel approach to automated analysis of conversation logs that learns the relationship between user-system interactions and overall dialogue quality. Unlike prior work on utterance-level quality prediction, our approach learns the impact of each interaction from the overall user rating without utterance-level annotation, allowing resultant model conclusions to be derived on the basis of empirical evidence and at low cost. Our model identifies interactions that have a strong correlation with the overall dialogue quality in a chatbot setting. Experiments show that the automated analysis from our model agrees with expert judgments, making this work the first to show that such weakly-supervised learning of utterance-level quality prediction is highly achievable.


Anolytics – Data Annotation Service For Machine Learning AI Directory - Global Artificial Intelligence Directory

#artificialintelligence

Anolytics offers a low-cost annotation service for machine learning and artificial intelligence model developments. It is providing the precisely annotated data in the form of text, images and videos using the various annotation techniques while ensuring the accuracy and quality. It is specialized in Image Annotation, Video Annotation and Text Annotation with best accuracy. Anolytics is providing all leading types of data annotation service used as a data training in machine learning and deep learning. It offers Bounding Boxes, Semantic Segmentation, 3D Point Cloud Annotation for fields like healthcare, autonomous driving or drone falying, retail, security surveillance and agriculture.