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LSTM-MSNet: Leveraging Forecasts on Sets of Related Time Series with Multiple Seasonal Patterns

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Generating forecasts for time series with multiple seasonal cycles is an important use-case for many industries nowadays. Accounting for the multi-seasonal patterns becomes necessary to generate more accurate and meaningful forecasts in these contexts. In this paper, we propose Long Short-Term Memory Multi-Seasonal Net (LSTM-MSNet), a decompositionbased, unified prediction framework to forecast time series with multiple seasonal patterns. The current state of the art in this space are typically univariate methods, in which the model parameters of each time series are estimated independently. Consequently, these models are unable to include key patterns and structures that may be shared by a collection of time series. In contrast, LSTM-MSNet is a globally trained Long Short-Term Memory network (LSTM), where a single prediction model is built across all the available time series to exploit the crossseries knowledge in a group of related time series. Furthermore, our methodology combines a series of state-of-the-art multiseasonal decomposition techniques to supplement the LSTM learning procedure. In our experiments, we are able to show that on datasets from disparate data sources, like e.g. the popular M4 forecasting competition, a decomposition step is beneficial, whereas in the common real-world situation of homogeneous series from a single application, exogenous seasonal variables or no seasonal preprocessing at all are better choices. All options are readily included in the framework and allow us to achieve competitive results for both cases, outperforming many state-ofthe-art multi-seasonal forecasting methods


Automatic Forecasting using Gaussian Processes

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Automatic forecasting is the task of receiving a time series and returning a forecast for the next time steps without any human intervention. We propose an approach for automatic forecasting based on Gaussian Processes (GPs). So far, the main limits of GPs on this task have been the lack of a criterion for the selection of the kernel and the long times required for training different competing kernels. We design a fixed additive kernel, which contains the components needed to model most time series. During training the unnecessary components are made irrelevant by automatic relevance determination. We assign priors to each hyperparameter. We design the priors by analyzing a separate set of time series through a hierarchical GP. The resulting model performs very well on different types of time series, being competitive or outperforming the state-of-the-art approaches.Thanks to the priors, we reliably estimate the parameters with a single restart; this speedup makes the model efficient to train and suitable for processing a large number of time series.


A Strong Baseline for Weekly Time Series Forecasting

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Many businesses and industries require accurate forecasts for weekly time series nowadays. The forecasting literature however does not currently provide easy-to-use, automatic, reproducible and accurate approaches dedicated to this task. We propose a forecasting method that can be used as a strong baseline in this domain, leveraging state-of-the-art forecasting techniques, forecast combination, and global modelling. Our approach uses four base forecasting models specifically suitable for forecasting weekly data: a global Recurrent Neural Network model, Theta, Trigonometric Box-Cox ARMA Trend Seasonal (TBATS), and Dynamic Harmonic Regression ARIMA (DHR-ARIMA). Those are then optimally combined using a lasso regression stacking approach. We evaluate the performance of our method against a set of state-of-the-art weekly forecasting models on six datasets. Across four evaluation metrics, we show that our method consistently outperforms the benchmark methods by a considerable margin with statistical significance. In particular, our model can produce the most accurate forecasts, in terms of mean sMAPE, for the M4 weekly dataset.


A Deep Structural Model for Analyzing Correlated Multivariate Time Series

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Multivariate time series are routinely encountered in real-world applications, and in many cases, these time series are strongly correlated. In this paper, we present a deep learning structural time series model which can (i) handle correlated multivariate time series input, and (ii) forecast the targeted temporal sequence by explicitly learning/extracting the trend, seasonality, and event components. The trend is learned via a 1D and 2D temporal CNN and LSTM hierarchical neural net. The CNN-LSTM architecture can (i) seamlessly leverage the dependency among multiple correlated time series in a natural way, (ii) extract the weighted differencing feature for better trend learning, and (iii) memorize the long-term sequential pattern. The seasonality component is approximated via a non-liner function of a set of Fourier terms, and the event components are learned by a simple linear function of regressor encoding the event dates. We compare our model with several state-of-the-art methods through a comprehensive set of experiments on a variety of time series data sets, such as forecasts of Amazon AWS Simple Storage Service (S3) and Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) billings, and the closing prices for corporate stocks in the same category.


RobustSTL: A Robust Seasonal-Trend Decomposition Algorithm for Long Time Series

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Decomposing complex time series into trend, seasonality, and remainder components is an important task to facilitate time series anomaly detection and forecasting. Although numerous methods have been proposed, there are still many time series characteristics exhibiting in real-world data which are not addressed properly, including 1) ability to handle seasonality fluctuation and shift, and abrupt change in trend and reminder; 2) robustness on data with anomalies; 3) applicability on time series with long seasonality period. In the paper, we propose a novel and generic time series decomposition algorithm to address these challenges. Specifically, we extract the trend component robustly by solving a regression problem using the least absolute deviations loss with sparse regularization. Based on the extracted trend, we apply the the non-local seasonal filtering to extract the seasonality component. This process is repeated until accurate decomposition is obtained. Experiments on different synthetic and real-world time series datasets demonstrate that our method outperforms existing solutions.