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Efficient Ridge Solution for the Incremental Broad Learning System on Added Nodes by Inverse Cholesky Factorization of a Partitioned Matrix

arXiv.org Machine Learning

To accelerate the existing Broad Learning System (BLS) for new added nodes in [7], we extend the inverse Cholesky factorization in [10] to deduce an efficient inverse Cholesky factorization for a Hermitian matrix partitioned into 2 * 2 blocks, which is utilized to develop the proposed BLS algorithm 1. The proposed BLS algorithm 1 compute the ridge solution (i.e, the output weights) from the inverse Cholesky factor of the Hermitian matrix in the ridge inverse, and update the inverse Cholesky factor efficiently. From the proposed BLS algorithm 1, we deduce the proposed ridge inverse, which can be obtained from the generalized inverse in [7] by just change one matrix in the equation to compute the newly added sub-matrix. We also modify the proposed algorithm 1 into the proposed algorithm 2, which is equivalent to the existing BLS algorithm [7] in terms of numerical computations. The proposed algorithms 1 and 2 can reduce the computational complexity, since usually the Hermitian matrix in the ridge inverse is smaller than the ridge inverse. With respect to the existing BLS algorithm, the proposed algorithms 1 and 2 usually require about 13 and 2 3 of complexities, respectively, while in numerical experiments they achieve the speedups (in each additional training time) of 2.40 - 2.91 and 1.36 - 1.60, respectively. Numerical experiments also show that the proposed algorithm 1 and the standard ridge solution always bear the same testing accuracy, and usually so do the proposed algorithm 2 and the existing BLS algorithm. The existing BLS assumes the ridge parameter lamda->0, since it is based on the generalized inverse with the ridge regression approximation. When the assumption of lamda-> 0 is not satisfied, the standard ridge solution obviously achieves a better testing accuracy than the existing BLS algorithm in numerical experiments.


Sparse Cholesky covariance parametrization for recovering latent structure in ordered data

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The sparse Cholesky parametrization of the inverse covariance matrix can be interpreted as a Gaussian Bayesian network; however its counterpart, the covariance Cholesky factor, has received, with few notable exceptions, little attention so far, despite having a natural interpretation as a hidden variable model for ordered signal data. To fill this gap, in this paper we focus on arbitrary zero patterns in the Cholesky factor of a covariance matrix. We discuss how these models can also be extended, in analogy with Gaussian Bayesian networks, to data where no apparent order is available. For the ordered scenario, we propose a novel estimation method that is based on matrix loss penalization, as opposed to the existing regression-based approaches. The performance of this sparse model for the Cholesky factor, together with our novel estimator, is assessed in a simulation setting, as well as over spatial and temporal real data where a natural ordering arises among the variables. We give guidelines, based on the empirical results, about which of the methods analysed is more appropriate for each setting.


Efficient Decremental Learning Algorithms for Broad Learning System

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The decremented learning algorithms are required in machine learning, to prune redundant nodes and remove obsolete inline training samples. In this paper, an efficient decremented learning algorithm to prune redundant nodes is deduced from the incremental learning algorithm 1 proposed in [9] for added nodes, and two decremented learning algorithms to remove training samples are deduced from the two incremental learning algorithms proposed in [10] for added inputs. The proposed decremented learning algorithm for reduced nodes utilizes the inverse Cholesterol factor of the Herminia matrix in the ridge inverse, to update the output weights recursively, as the incremental learning algorithm 1 for added nodes in [9], while that inverse Cholesterol factor is updated with an unitary transformation. The proposed decremented learning algorithm 1 for reduced inputs updates the output weights recursively with the inverse of the Herminia matrix in the ridge inverse, and updates that inverse recursively, as the incremental learning algorithm 1 for added inputs in [10].


The Matrix Ridge Approximation: Algorithms and Applications

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We are concerned with an approximation problem for a symmetric positive semidefinite matrix due to motivation from a class of nonlinear machine learning methods. We discuss an approximation approach that we call {matrix ridge approximation}. In particular, we define the matrix ridge approximation as an incomplete matrix factorization plus a ridge term. Moreover, we present probabilistic interpretations using a normal latent variable model and a Wishart model for this approximation approach. The idea behind the latent variable model in turn leads us to an efficient EM iterative method for handling the matrix ridge approximation problem. Finally, we illustrate the applications of the approximation approach in multivariate data analysis. Empirical studies in spectral clustering and Gaussian process regression show that the matrix ridge approximation with the EM iteration is potentially useful.


Interpolating the Trace of the Inverse of Matrix $\mathbf{A} + t \mathbf{B}$

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We develop heuristic interpolation methods for the function $t \mapsto \operatorname{trace}\left( (\mathbf{A} + t \mathbf{B})^{-1} \right)$, where the matrices $\mathbf{A}$ and $\mathbf{B}$ are symmetric and positive definite and $t$ is a real variable. This function is featured in many applications in statistics, machine learning, and computational physics. The presented interpolation functions are based on the modification of a sharp upper bound that we derive for this function, which is a new trace inequality for matrices. We demonstrate the accuracy and performance of the proposed method with numerical examples, namely, the marginal maximum likelihood estimation for linear Gaussian process regression and the estimation of the regularization parameter of ridge regression with the generalized cross-validation method.