With the advent of crowdsourcing services it has become quite cheap and reasonably effective to get a dataset labeled by multiple annotators in a short amount of time. Various methods have been proposed to estimate the consensus labels by correcting for the bias of annotators with different kinds of expertise. Often we have low quality annotators or spammers--annotators who assign labels randomly (e.g., without actually looking at the instance). Spammers can make the cost of acquiring labels very expensive and can potentially degrade the quality of the consensus labels. In this paper we formalize the notion of a spammer and define a score which can be used to rank the annotators---with the spammers having a score close to zero and the good annotators having a high score close to one.
A large amount of ordinal-valued data exist in many domains, including medical and health science, social science, economics, political science, etc. Unlike image and speech datasets of real-valued data, learning with ordinal variables (i.e., features) presents unique challenges. In particular, the nominal differences between those feature values, which are just ranks, do not necessarily correspond to the real distances between the corresponding categories. Given their wide existence, it is imperative to develop machine learning algorithms that specifically address the need to model and infer with such data. In this paper, we present a novel metric learning algorithm that takes into consideration the nature of ordinal data. Our approach treats ordinal values as latent variables in intervals. Our algorithm then learns what those intervals are as well as distance metrics to measure distances between latent variables in those intervals. We derive the corresponding optimization algorithm and demonstrate how that can be solved effectively. Experimental results show that the proposed approach significantly improves baselines that do not explicitly model ordinal features.
The growing need to analyze large collections of documents has led to great developments in topic modeling. Since documents are frequently associated with other related variables, such as labels or ratings, much interest has been placed on supervised topic models. However, the nature of most annotation tasks, prone to ambiguity and noise, often with high volumes of documents, deem learning under a single-annotator assumption unrealistic or unpractical for most real-world applications. In this article, we propose two supervised topic models, one for classification and another for regression problems, which account for the heterogeneity and biases among different annotators that are encountered in practice when learning from crowds. We develop an efficient stochastic variational inference algorithm that is able to scale to very large datasets, and we empirically demonstrate the advantages of the proposed model over state-of-the-art approaches.
Recent work by Locatello et al. (2018) has shown that an inductive bias is required to disentangle factors of interest in Variational Autoencoder (VAE). Motivated by a real-world problem, we propose a setting where such bias is introduced by providing pairwise ordinal comparisons between instances, based on the desired factor to be disentangled. For example, a doctor compares pairs of patients based on the level of severity of their illnesses, and the desired factor is a quantitive level of the disease severity. In a real-world application, the pairwise comparisons are usually noisy. Our method, Robust Ordinal VAE (ROVAE), incorporates the noisy pairwise ordinal comparisons in the disentanglement task. We introduce non-negative random variables in ROVAE, such that it can automatically determine whether each pairwise ordinal comparison is trustworthy and ignore the noisy comparisons. Experimental results demonstrate that ROVAE outperforms existing methods and is more robust to noisy pairwise comparisons in both benchmark datasets and a real-world application.
We propose an iterative approach for inferring a ground truth value of an item from judgments collected form on-line workers. The method is specifically designed for cases in which the collected labels are ordinal. Our algorithm works by iteratively solving a hard-assignment EM model and later calculating one final expected value after the convergence of the EM procedure. This algorithm does not require any parameter tuning and can serve as turnkey algorithm for aggregating categorical and ordinal judgments.