Autonomous Vehicles (AV) are expected to bring considerable benefits to society, such as traffic optimization and accidents reduction. They rely heavily on advances in many Artificial Intelligence (AI) approaches and techniques. However, while some researchers in this field believe AI is the core element to enhance safety, others believe AI imposes new challenges to assure the safety of these new AI-based systems and applications. In this non-convergent context, this paper presents a systematic literature review to paint a clear picture of the state of the art of the literature in AI on AV safety. Based on an initial sample of 4870 retrieved papers, 59 studies were selected as the result of the selection criteria detailed in the paper. The shortlisted studies were then mapped into six categories to answer the proposed research questions. An AV system model was proposed and applied to orient the discussions about the SLR findings. As a main result, we have reinforced our preliminary observation about the necessity of considering a serious safety agenda for the future studies on AI-based AV systems.
Connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) will form the backbone of future next-generation intelligent transportation systems (ITS) providing travel comfort, road safety, along with a number of value-added services. Such a transformation---which will be fuelled by concomitant advances in technologies for machine learning (ML) and wireless communications---will enable a future vehicular ecosystem that is better featured and more efficient. However, there are lurking security problems related to the use of ML in such a critical setting where an incorrect ML decision may not only be a nuisance but can lead to loss of precious lives. In this paper, we present an in-depth overview of the various challenges associated with the application of ML in vehicular networks. In addition, we formulate the ML pipeline of CAVs and present various potential security issues associated with the adoption of ML methods. In particular, we focus on the perspective of adversarial ML attacks on CAVs and outline a solution to defend against adversarial attacks in multiple settings.
Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) has become increasingly powerful in recent years, with notable achievements such as Deepmind's AlphaGo. It has been successfully deployed in commercial vehicles like Mobileye's path planning system. However, a vast majority of work on DRL is focused on toy examples in controlled synthetic car simulator environments such as TORCS and CARLA. In general, DRL is still at its infancy in terms of usability in real-world applications. Our goal in this paper is to encourage real-world deployment of DRL in various autonomous driving (AD) applications. We first provide an overview of the tasks in autonomous driving systems, reinforcement learning algorithms and applications of DRL to AD systems. We then discuss the challenges which must be addressed to enable further progress towards real-world deployment.
Building effective, enjoyable, and safe autonomous vehicles is a lot harder than has historically been considered. The reason is that, simply put, an autonomous vehicle must interact with human beings. This interaction is not a robotics problem nor a machine learning problem nor a psychology problem nor an economics problem nor a policy problem. It is all of these problems put into one. It challenges our assumptions about the limitations of human beings at their worst and the capabilities of artificial intelligence systems at their best. This work proposes a set of principles for designing and building autonomous vehicles in a human-centered way that does not run away from the complexity of human nature but instead embraces it. We describe our development of the Human-Centered Autonomous Vehicle (HCAV) as an illustrative case study of implementing these principles in practice.
This paper presents TrolleyMod v1.0, an open-source platform based on the CARLA simulator for the collection of ethical decision-making data for autonomous vehicles. This platform is designed to facilitate experiments aiming to observe and record human decisions and actions in high-fidelity simulations of ethical dilemmas that occur in the context of driving. Targeting experiments in the class of trolley problems, TrolleyMod provides a seamless approach to creating new experimental settings and environments with the realistic physics-engine and the high-quality graphical capabilities of CARLA and the Unreal Engine. Also, TrolleyMod provides a straightforward interface between the CARLA environment and Python to enable the implementation of custom controllers, such as deep reinforcement learning agents. The results of such experiments can be used for sociological analyses, as well as the training and tuning of value-aligned autonomous vehicles based on social values that are inferred from observations.