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Computationally Tractable Riemannian Manifolds for Graph Embeddings

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Representing graphs as sets of node embeddings in certain curved Riemannian manifolds has recently gained momentum in machine learning due to their desirable geometric inductive biases, e.g., hierarchical structures benefit from hyperbolic geometry. However, going beyond embedding spaces of constant sectional curvature, while potentially more representationally powerful, proves to be challenging as one can easily lose the appeal of computationally tractable tools such as geodesic distances or Riemannian gradients. Here, we explore computationally efficient matrix manifolds, showcasing how to learn and optimize graph embeddings in these Riemannian spaces. Empirically, we demonstrate consistent improvements over Euclidean geometry while often outperforming hyperbolic and elliptical embeddings based on various metrics that capture different graph properties. Our results serve as new evidence for the benefits of non-Euclidean embeddings in machine learning pipelines.


ChebLieNet: Invariant Spectral Graph NNs Turned Equivariant by Riemannian Geometry on Lie Groups

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We introduce ChebLieNet, a group-equivariant method on (anisotropic) manifolds. Surfing on the success of graph- and group-based neural networks, we take advantage of the recent developments in the geometric deep learning field to derive a new approach to exploit any anisotropies in data. Via discrete approximations of Lie groups, we develop a graph neural network made of anisotropic convolutional layers (Chebyshev convolutions), spatial pooling and unpooling layers, and global pooling layers. Group equivariance is achieved via equivariant and invariant operators on graphs with anisotropic left-invariant Riemannian distance-based affinities encoded on the edges. Thanks to its simple form, the Riemannian metric can model any anisotropies, both in the spatial and orientation domains. This control on anisotropies of the Riemannian metrics allows to balance equivariance (anisotropic metric) against invariance (isotropic metric) of the graph convolution layers. Hence we open the doors to a better understanding of anisotropic properties. Furthermore, we empirically prove the existence of (data-dependent) sweet spots for anisotropic parameters on CIFAR10. This crucial result is evidence of the benefice we could get by exploiting anisotropic properties in data. We also evaluate the scalability of this approach on STL10 (image data) and ClimateNet (spherical data), showing its remarkable adaptability to diverse tasks.


Non-linear dimensionality reduction: Riemannian metric estimation and the problem of geometric discovery

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In recent years, manifold learning has become increasingly popular as a tool for performing non-linear dimensionality reduction. This has led to the development of numerous algorithms of varying degrees of complexity that aim to recover man ifold geometry using either local or global features of the data. Building on the Laplacian Eigenmap and Diffusionmaps framework, we propose a new paradigm that offers a guarantee, under reasonable assumptions, that any manifo ld learning algorithm will preserve the geometry of a data set. Our approach is based on augmenting the output of embedding algorithms with geometric informatio n embodied in the Riemannian metric of the manifold. We provide an algorithm for estimating the Riemannian metric from data and demonstrate possible application s of our approach in a variety of examples.


Universality Theorems for Generative Models

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Despite the fact that generative models are extremely successful in practice, the theory underlying this phenomenon is only starting to catch up with practice. In this work we address the question of the universality of generative models: is it true that neural networks can approximate any data manifold arbitrarily well? We provide a positive answer to this question and show that under mild assumptions on the activation function one can always find a feedforward neural network which maps the latent space onto a set located within the specified Hausdorff distance from the desired data manifold. We also prove similar theorems for the case of multiclass generative models and cycle generative models, trained to map samples from one manifold to another and vice versa.


Hyperbolic Entailment Cones for Learning Hierarchical Embeddings

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Learning graph representations via low-dimensional embeddings that preserve relevant network properties is an important class of problems in machine learning. We here present a novel method to embed directed acyclic graphs. Following prior work, we first advocate for using hyperbolic spaces which provably model tree-like structures better than Euclidean geometry. Second, we view hierarchical relations as partial orders defined using a family of nested geodesically convex cones. We prove that these entailment cones admit an optimal shape with a closed form expression both in the Euclidean and hyperbolic spaces. Moreover, they canonically define the embedding learning process. Experiments show significant improvements of our method over strong recent baselines both in terms of representational capacity and generalization.