This paper provides a systematic and comprehensive survey that reviews the latest research efforts focused on machine learning (ML) based performance improvement of wireless networks, while considering all layers of the protocol stack (PHY, MAC and network). First, the related work and paper contributions are discussed, followed by providing the necessary background on data-driven approaches and machine learning for non-machine learning experts to understand all discussed techniques. Then, a comprehensive review is presented on works employing ML-based approaches to optimize the wireless communication parameters settings to achieve improved network quality-of-service (QoS) and quality-of-experience (QoE). We first categorize these works into: radio analysis, MAC analysis and network prediction approaches, followed by subcategories within each. Finally, open challenges and broader perspectives are discussed.
Cognitive radio networks (CRNs) are networks of nodes equipped with cognitive radios that can optimize performance by adapting to network conditions. While cognitive radio networks (CRN) are envisioned as intelligent networks, relatively little research has focused on the network level functionality of CRNs. Although various routing protocols, incorporating varying degrees of adaptiveness, have been proposed for CRNs, it is imperative for the long term success of CRNs that the design of cognitive routing protocols be pursued by the research community. Cognitive routing protocols are envisioned as routing protocols that fully and seamless incorporate AI-based techniques into their design. In this paper, we provide a self-contained tutorial on various AI and machine-learning techniques that have been, or can be, used for developing cognitive routing protocols. We also survey the application of various classes of AI techniques to CRNs in general, and to the problem of routing in particular. We discuss various decision making techniques and learning techniques from AI and document their current and potential applications to the problem of routing in CRNs. We also highlight the various inference, reasoning, modeling, and learning sub tasks that a cognitive routing protocol must solve. Finally, open research issues and future directions of work are identified.
The fifth generation (5G) and beyond wireless networks are critical to support diverse vertical applications by connecting heterogeneous devices and machines, which directly increase vulnerability for various spoofing attacks. Conventional cryptographic and physical layer authentication techniques are facing some challenges in complex dynamic wireless environments, including significant security overhead, low reliability, as well as difficulty in pre-designing authentication model, providing continuous protections, and learning time-varying attributes. In this article, we envision new authentication approaches based on machine learning techniques by opportunistically leveraging physical layer attributes, and introduce intelligence to authentication for more efficient security provisioning. Machine learning paradigms for intelligent authentication design are presented, namely for parametric/non-parametric and supervised/unsupervised/reinforcement learning algorithms. In a nutshell, the machine learning-based intelligent authentication approaches utilize specific features in the multi-dimensional domain for achieving cost-effective, more reliable, model-free, continuous and situation-aware device validation under unknown network conditions and unpredictable dynamics.
Due to the proliferation of smart devices and emerging applications, many next-generation technologies have been paid for the development of wireless networks. Even though commercial 5G has just been widely deployed in some countries, there have been initial efforts from academia and industrial communities for 6G systems. In such a network, a very large number of devices and applications are emerged, along with heterogeneity of technologies, architectures, mobile data, etc., and optimizing such a network is of utmost importance. Besides convex optimization and game theory, swarm intelligence (SI) has recently appeared as a promising optimization tool for wireless networks. As a new subdivision of artificial intelligence, SI is inspired by the collective behaviors of societies of biological species. In SI, simple agents with limited capabilities would achieve intelligent strategies for high-dimensional and challenging problems, so it has recently found many applications in next-generation wireless networks (NGN). However, researchers may not be completely aware of the full potential of SI techniques. In this work, our primary focus will be the integration of these two domains: NGN and SI. Firstly, we provide an overview of SI techniques from fundamental concepts to well-known optimizers. Secondly, we review the applications of SI to settle emerging issues in NGN, including spectrum management and resource allocation, wireless caching and edge computing, network security, and several other miscellaneous issues. Finally, we highlight open challenges and issues in the literature, and introduce some interesting directions for future research.
Artificial intelligence (AI) assisted unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) aided next-generation networking is proposed for dynamic environments. In the AI-enabled UAV-aided wireless networks (UAWN), multiple UAVs are employed as aerial base stations, which are capable of rapidly adapting to the dynamic environment by collecting information about the users' position and tele-traffic demands, learning from the environment and acting upon the feedback received from the users. Moreover, AI enables the interaction amongst a swarm of UAVs for cooperative optimization of the system. As a benefit of the AI framework, several challenges of conventional UAWN may be circumvented, leading to enhanced network performance, improved reliability and agile adaptivity. As a further benefit, dynamic trajectory design and resource allocation are demonstrated. Finally, potential research challenges and opportunities are discussed.