Consistency regularization on label predictions becomes a fundamental technique in semi-supervised learning, but it still requires a large number of training iterations for high performance. In this study, we analyze that the consistency regularization restricts the propagation of labeling information due to the exclusion of samples with unconfident pseudo-labels in the model updates. Then, we propose contrastive regularization to improve both efficiency and accuracy of the consistency regularization by well-clustered features of unlabeled data. In specific, after strongly augmented samples are assigned to clusters by their pseudo-labels, our contrastive regularization updates the model so that the features with confident pseudo-labels aggregate the features in the same cluster, while pushing away features in different clusters. As a result, the information of confident pseudo-labels can be effectively propagated into more unlabeled samples during training by the well-clustered features. On benchmarks of semi-supervised learning tasks, our contrastive regularization improves the previous consistency-based methods and achieves state-of-the-art results, especially with fewer training iterations. Our method also shows robust performance on open-set semi-supervised learning where unlabeled data includes out-of-distribution samples.
Semi-supervised learning (SSL) provides an effective means of leveraging unlabeled data to improve a model's performance. In this paper, we demonstrate the power of a simple combination of two common SSL methods: consistency regularization and pseudo-labeling. Our algorithm, FixMatch, first generates pseudo-labels using the model's predictions on weakly-augmented unlabeled images. For a given image, the pseudo-label is only retained if the model produces a high-confidence prediction. The model is then trained to predict the pseudo-label when fed a strongly-augmented version of the same image. Despite its simplicity, we show that FixMatch achieves state-of-the-art performance across a variety of standard semi-supervised learning benchmarks, including 94.93% accuracy on CIFAR-10 with 250 labels and 88.61% accuracy with 40 -- just 4 labels per class. Since FixMatch bears many similarities to existing SSL methods that achieve worse performance, we carry out an extensive ablation study to tease apart the experimental factors that are most important to FixMatch's success. We make our code available at https://github.com/google-research/fixmatch.
Supervised deep learning-based methods yield accurate results for medical image segmentation. However, they require large labeled datasets for this, and obtaining them is a laborious task that requires clinical expertise. Semi/self-supervised learning-based approaches address this limitation by exploiting unlabeled data along with limited annotated data. Recent self-supervised learning methods use contrastive loss to learn good global level representations from unlabeled images and achieve high performance in classification tasks on popular natural image datasets like ImageNet. In pixel-level prediction tasks such as segmentation, it is crucial to also learn good local level representations along with global representations to achieve better accuracy. However, the impact of the existing local contrastive loss-based methods remains limited for learning good local representations because similar and dissimilar local regions are defined based on random augmentations and spatial proximity; not based on the semantic label of local regions due to lack of large-scale expert annotations in the semi/self-supervised setting. In this paper, we propose a local contrastive loss to learn good pixel level features useful for segmentation by exploiting semantic label information obtained from pseudo-labels of unlabeled images alongside limited annotated images. In particular, we define the proposed loss to encourage similar representations for the pixels that have the same pseudo-label/ label while being dissimilar to the representation of pixels with different pseudo-label/label in the dataset. We perform pseudo-label based self-training and train the network by jointly optimizing the proposed contrastive loss on both labeled and unlabeled sets and segmentation loss on only the limited labeled set. We evaluated on three public cardiac and prostate datasets, and obtain high segmentation performance.
The capability of the traditional semi-supervised learning (SSL) methods is far from real-world application since they do not consider (1) class imbalance and (2) class distribution mismatch between labeled and unlabeled data. This paper addresses such a relatively under-explored problem, imbalanced semi-supervised learning, where heavily biased pseudo-labels can harm the model performance. Interestingly, we find that the semantic pseudo-labels from a similarity-based classifier in feature space and the traditional pseudo-labels from the linear classifier show the complementary property. To this end, we propose a general pseudo-labeling framework to address the bias motivated by this observation. The key idea is to class-adaptively blend the semantic pseudo-label to the linear one, depending on the current pseudo-label distribution. Thereby, the increased semantic pseudo-label component suppresses the false positives in the majority classes and vice versa. We term the novel pseudo-labeling framework for imbalanced SSL as Distribution-Aware Semantics-Oriented (DASO) Pseudo-label. Extensive evaluation on CIFAR10/100-LT and STL10-LT shows that DASO consistently outperforms both recently proposed re-balancing methods for label and pseudo-label. Moreover, we demonstrate that typical SSL algorithms can effectively benefit from unlabeled data with DASO, especially when (1) class imbalance and (2) class distribution mismatch exist and even on recent real-world Semi-Aves benchmark.
This paper proposes a novel method of learning by predicting view assignments with support samples (PAWS). The method trains a model to minimize a consistency loss, which ensures that different views of the same unlabeled instance are assigned similar pseudo-labels. The pseudo-labels are generated non-parametrically, by comparing the representations of the image views to those of a set of randomly sampled labeled images. The distance between the view representations and labeled representations is used to provide a weighting over class labels, which we interpret as a soft pseudo-label. By non-parametrically incorporating labeled samples in this way, PAWS extends the distance-metric loss used in self-supervised methods such as BYOL and SwAV to the semi-supervised setting. Despite the simplicity of the approach, PAWS outperforms other semi-supervised methods across architectures, setting a new state-of-the-art for a ResNet-50 on ImageNet trained with either 10% or 1% of the labels, reaching 75.5% and 66.5% top-1 respectively. PAWS requires 4x to 12x less training than the previous best methods.