Millimeter-wave (mmW) radars are being increasingly integrated into commercial vehicles to support new advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) by enabling robust and high-performance object detection, localization, as well as recognition - a key component of new environmental perception. In this paper, we propose a novel radar multiple-perspectives convolutional neural network (RAMP-CNN) that extracts the location and class of objects based on further processing of the range-velocity-angle (RVA) heatmap sequences. To bypass the complexity of 4D convolutional neural networks (NN), we propose to combine several lower-dimension NN models within our RAMP-CNN model that nonetheless approaches the performance upper-bound with lower complexity. The extensive experiments show that the proposed RAMP-CNN model achieves better average recall (AR) and average precision (AP) than prior works in all testing scenarios (see Table. III). Besides, the RAMP-CNN model is validated to work robustly under the nighttime, which enables low-cost radars as a potential substitute for pure optical sensing under severe conditions.
In this paper, mm-Pose, a novel approach to detect and track human skeletons in real-time using an mmWave radar, is proposed. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first method to detect >15 distinct skeletal joints using mmWave radar reflection signals. The proposed method would find several applications in traffic monitoring systems, autonomous vehicles, patient monitoring systems and defense forces to detect and track human skeleton for effective and preventive decision making in real-time. The use of radar makes the system operationally robust to scene lighting and adverse weather conditions. The reflected radar point cloud in range, azimuth and elevation are first resolved and projected in Range-Azimuth and Range-Elevation planes. A novel low-size high-resolution radar-to-image representation is also presented, that overcomes the sparsity in traditional point cloud data and offers significant reduction in the subsequent machine learning architecture. The RGB channels were assigned with the normalized values of range, elevation/azimuth and the power level of the reflection signals for each of the points. A forked CNN architecture was used to predict the real-world position of the skeletal joints in 3-D space, using the radar-to-image representation. The proposed method was tested for a single human scenario for four primary motions, (i) Walking, (ii) Swinging left arm, (iii) Swinging right arm, and (iv) Swinging both arms to validate accurate predictions for motion in range, azimuth and elevation. The detailed methodology, implementation, challenges, and validation results are presented.
In multimodal traffic monitoring, we gather traffic statistics for distinct transportation modes, such as pedestrians, cars and bicycles, in order to analyze and improve people's daily mobility in terms of safety and convenience. On account of its robustness to bad light and adverse weather conditions, and inherent speed measurement ability, the radar sensor is a suitable option for this application. However, the sparse radar data from conventional commercial radars make it extremely challenging for transportation mode classification. Thus, we propose to use a high-resolution millimeter-wave(mmWave) radar sensor to obtain a relatively richer radar point cloud representation for a traffic monitoring scenario. Based on a new feature vector, we use the multivariate Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to do the radar point cloud segmentation, i.e. `point-wise' classification, in an unsupervised learning environment. In our experiment, we collected radar point clouds for pedestrians and cars, which also contained the inevitable clutter from the surroundings. The experimental results using GMM on the new feature vector demonstrated a good segmentation performance in terms of the intersection-over-union (IoU) metrics. The detailed methodology and validation metrics are presented and discussed.
This paper presents an novel object type classification method for automotive applications which uses deep learning with radar reflections. The method provides object class information such as pedestrian, cyclist, car, or non-obstacle. The method is both powerful and efficient, by using a light-weight deep learning approach on reflection level radar data. It fills the gap between low-performant methods of handcrafted features and high-performant methods with convolutional neural networks. The proposed network exploits the specific characteristics of radar reflection data: It handles unordered lists of arbitrary length as input and it combines both extraction of local and global features. In experiments with real data the proposed network outperforms existing methods of handcrafted or learned features. An ablation study analyzes the impact of the proposed global context layer.
To address potential gaps noted in patient monitoring in the hospital, a novel patient behavior detection system using mmWave radar and deep convolution neural network (CNN), which supports the simultaneous recognition of multiple patients' behaviors in real-time, is proposed. In this study, we use an mmWave radar to track multiple patients and detect the scattering point cloud of each one. For each patient, the Doppler pattern of the point cloud over a time period is collected as the behavior signature. A three-layer CNN model is created to classify the behavior for each patient. The tracking and point clouds detection algorithm was also implemented on an mmWave radar hardware platform with an embedded graphics processing unit (GPU) board to collect Doppler pattern and run the CNN model. A training dataset of six types of behavior were collected, over a long duration, to train the model using Adam optimizer with an objective to minimize cross-entropy loss function. Lastly, the system was tested for real-time operation and obtained a very good inference accuracy when predicting each patient's behavior in a two-patient scenario.