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WaveletFCNN: A Deep Time Series Classification Model for Wind Turbine Blade Icing Detection

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Wind power, as an alternative to burning fossil fuels, is plentiful and renewable. Data-driven approaches are increasingly popular for inspecting the wind turbine failures. In this paper, we propose a novel classification-based anomaly detection system for icing detection of the wind turbine blades. We effectively combine the deep neural networks and wavelet transformation to identify such failures sequentially across the time. In the training phase, we present a wavelet based fully convolutional neural network (FCNN), namely WaveletFCNN, for the time series classification. We improve the original (FCNN) by augmenting features with the wavelet coefficients. WaveletFCNN outperforms the state-of-the-art FCNN for the univariate time series classification on the UCR time series archive benchmarks. In the detecting phase, we combine the sliding window and majority vote algorithms to provide the timely monitoring of the anomalies. The system has been successfully implemented on a real-world dataset from Goldwind Inc, where the classifier is trained on a multivariate time series dataset and the monitoring algorithm is implemented to capture the abnormal condition on signals from a wind farm.


Wavelets to the Rescue: Improving Sample Quality of Latent Variable Deep Generative Models

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Variational Autoencoders (VAE) are probabilistic deep generative models underpinned by elegant theory, stable training processes, and meaningful manifold representations. However, they produce blurry images due to a lack of explicit emphasis over high-frequency textural details of the images, and the difficulty to directly model the complex joint probability distribution over the high-dimensional image space. In this work, we approach these two challenges with a novel wavelet space VAE that uses the decoder to model the images in the wavelet coefficient space. This enables the VAE to emphasize over high-frequency components within an image obtained via wavelet decomposition. Additionally, by decomposing the complex function of generating high-dimensional images into inverse wavelet transformation and generation of wavelet coefficients, the latter becomes simpler to model by the VAE. We empirically validate that deep generative models operating in the wavelet space can generate images of higher quality than the image (RGB) space counterparts. Quantitatively, on benchmark natural image datasets, we achieve consistently better FID scores than VAE based architectures and competitive FID scores with a variety of GAN models for the same architectural and experimental setup. Furthermore, the proposed wavelet-based generative model retains desirable attributes like disentangled and informative latent representation without losing the quality in the generated samples.


Graph Spectral Embedding for Parsimonious Transmission of Multivariate Time Series

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We propose a graph spectral representation of time series data that 1) is parsimoniously encoded to user-demanded resolution; 2) is unsupervised and performant in data-constrained scenarios; 3) captures event and event-transition structure within the time series; and 4) has near-linear computational complexity in both signal length and ambient dimension. This representation, which we call Laplacian Events Signal Segmentation (LESS), can be computed on time series of arbitrary dimension and originating from sensors of arbitrary type. Hence, time series originating from sensors of heterogeneous type can be compressed to levels demanded by constrained-communication environments, before being fused at a common center. Temporal dynamics of the data is summarized without explicit partitioning or probabilistic modeling. As a proof-of-principle, we apply this technique on high dimensional wavelet coefficients computed from the Free Spoken Digit Dataset to generate a memory efficient representation that is interpretable. Due to its unsupervised and non-parametric nature, LESS representations remain performant in the digit classification task despite the absence of labels and limited data.


AutoCogniSys: IoT Assisted Context-Aware Automatic Cognitive Health Assessment

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Cognitive impairment has become epidemic in older adult population. The recent advent of tiny wearable and ambient devices, a.k.a Internet of Things (IoT) provides ample platforms for continuous functional and cognitive health assessment of older adults. In this paper, we design, implement and evaluate AutoCogniSys, a context-aware automated cognitive health assessment system, combining the sensing powers of wearable physiological (Electrodermal Activity, Photoplethysmography) and physical (Accelerometer, Object) sensors in conjunction with ambient sensors. We design appropriate signal processing and machine learning techniques, and develop an automatic cognitive health assessment system in a natural older adults living environment. We validate our approaches using two datasets: (i) a naturalistic sensor data streams related to Activities of Daily Living and mental arousal of 22 older adults recruited in a retirement community center, individually living in their own apartments using a customized inexpensive IoT system (IRB #HP-00064387) and (ii) a publicly available dataset for emotion detection. The performance of AutoCogniSys attests max. 93\% of accuracy in assessing cognitive health of older adults.


Unsupervised Prediction of Negative Health Events Ahead of Time

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The emergence of continuous health monitoring and the availability of an enormous amount of time series data has provided a great opportunity for the advancement of personal health tracking. In recent years, unsupervised learning methods have drawn special attention of researchers to tackle the sparse annotation of health data and real-time detection of anomalies has been a central problem of interest. However, one problem that has not been well addressed before is the early prediction of forthcoming negative health events. Early signs of an event can introduce subtle and gradual changes in the health signal prior to its onset, detection of which can be invaluable in effective prevention. In this study, we first demonstrate our observations on the shortcoming of widely adopted anomaly detection methods in uncovering the changes prior to a negative health event. We then propose a framework which relies on online clustering of signal segment representations which are automatically learned by a specially designed LSTM auto-encoder. We show the effectiveness of our approach by predicting Bradycardia events in infants using MIT-PICS dataset 1.3 minutes ahead of time with 68\% AUC score on average, using no label supervision. Results of our study can indicate the viability of our approach in the early detection of health events in other applications as well.