Leppert, Robert, Zimmermann, Karl-Heinz

Machine learning provides algorithms that can learn from data and make inferences or predictions on data. Bayesian networks are a class of graphical models that allow to represent a collection of random variables and their condititional dependencies by directed acyclic graphs. In this paper, an inference algorithm for the hidden random variables of a Bayesian network is given by using the tropicalization of the marginal distribution of the observed variables. By restricting the topological structure to graded networks, an inference algorithm for graded Bayesian networks will be established that evaluates the hidden random variables rank by rank and in this way yields the most probable states of the hidden variables. This algorithm can be viewed as a generalized version of the Viterbi algorithm for graded Bayesian networks.

A new method is developed to represent probabilistic relations on multiple random events. Where previously knowledge bases containing probabilistic rules were used for this purpose, here a probability distribution over the relations is directly represented by a Bayesian network. By using a powerful way of specifying conditional probability distributions in these networks, the resulting formalism is more expressive than the previous ones. Particularly, it provides for constraints on equalities of events, and it allows to define complex, nested combination functions.

Nagata, Kenji, Mototake, Yoh-ichi, Muraoka, Rei, Sasaki, Takehiko, Okada, Masato

In this paper, we propose a new method of Bayesian measurement for spectral deconvolution, which regresses spectral data into the sum of unimodal basis function such as Gaussian or Lorentzian functions. Bayesian measurement is a framework for considering not only the target physical model but also the measurement model as a probabilistic model, and enables us to estimate the parameter of a physical model with its confidence interval through a Bayesian posterior distribution given a measurement data set. The measurement with Poisson noise is one of the most effective system to apply our proposed method. Since the measurement time is strongly related to the signal-to-noise ratio for the Poisson noise model, Bayesian measurement with Poisson noise model enables us to clarify the relationship between the measurement time and the limit of estimation. In this study, we establish the probabilistic model with Poisson noise for spectral deconvolution. Bayesian measurement enables us to perform virtual and computer simulation for a certain measurement through the established probabilistic model. This property is called "Virtual Measurement Analytics(VMA)" in this paper. We also show that the relationship between the measurement time and the limit of estimation can be extracted by using the proposed method in a simulation of synthetic data and real data for XPS measurement of MoS$_2$.

Welcome to the next episode in my series of answering questions and provoking thought in Data Analytics and Machine learning. An intern at Optisol who is undergoing the Data Analytics boot camp that we are running mentioned that Bayesian statistics topic was very dry and boring at the Amity university online degree on Big Data that she is pursuing. No offense to the Amity people, but my response is if Bayesian seems boring, it has to be the instructor or the curriculum that should take the blame.

Azzimonti, L., Corani, G., Zaffalon, M.

We present a novel approach for estimating conditional probability tables, based on a joint, rather than independent, estimate of the conditional distributions belonging to the same table. We derive exact analytical expressions for the estimators and we analyse their properties both analytically and via simulation. We then apply this method to the estimation of parameters in a Bayesian network. Given the structure of the network, the proposed approach better estimates the joint distribution and significantly improves the classification performance with respect to traditional approaches.