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Graphite: GRAPH-Induced feaTure Extraction for Point Cloud Registration

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

3D Point clouds are a rich source of information that enjoy growing popularity in the vision community. However, due to the sparsity of their representation, learning models based on large point clouds is still a challenge. In this work, we introduce Graphite, a GRAPH-Induced feaTure Extraction pipeline, a simple yet powerful feature transform and keypoint detector. Graphite enables intensive down-sampling of point clouds with keypoint detection accompanied by a descriptor. We construct a generic graph-based learning scheme to describe point cloud regions and extract salient points. To this end, we take advantage of 6D pose information and metric learning to learn robust descriptions and keypoints across different scans. We Reformulate the 3D keypoint pipeline with graph neural networks which allow efficient processing of the point set while boosting its descriptive power which ultimately results in more accurate 3D registrations. We demonstrate our lightweight descriptor on common 3D descriptor matching and point cloud registration benchmarks and achieve comparable results with the state of the art. Describing 100 patches of a point cloud and detecting their keypoints takes only ~0.018 seconds with our proposed network.


Recalibration of Neural Networks for Point Cloud Analysis

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Spatial and channel re-calibration have become powerful concepts in computer vision. Their ability to capture long-range dependencies is especially useful for those networks that extract local features, such as CNNs. While re-calibration has been widely studied for image analysis, it has not yet been used on shape representations. In this work, we introduce re-calibration modules on deep neural networks for 3D point clouds. We propose a set of re-calibration blocks that extend Squeeze and Excitation blocks and that can be added to any network for 3D point cloud analysis that builds a global descriptor by hierarchically combining features from multiple local neighborhoods. We run two sets of experiments to validate our approach. First, we demonstrate the benefit and versatility of our proposed modules by incorporating them into three state-of-the-art networks for 3D point cloud analysis: PointNet++, DGCNN, and RSCNN. We evaluate each network on two tasks: object classification on ModelNet40, and object part segmentation on ShapeNet. Our results show an improvement of up to 1% in accuracy for ModelNet40 compared to the baseline method. In the second set of experiments, we investigate the benefits of re-calibration blocks on Alzheimer's Disease (AD) diagnosis. Our results demonstrate that our proposed methods yield a 2% increase in accuracy for diagnosing AD and a 2.3% increase in concordance index for predicting AD onset with time-to-event analysis. Concluding, re-calibration improves the accuracy of point cloud architectures, while only minimally increasing the number of parameters.


3D-Rotation-Equivariant Quaternion Neural Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper proposes a set of rules to revise various neural networks for 3D point cloud processing to rotation-equivariant quaternion neural networks (REQNNs). W e find that when a neural network uses quaternion features under certain conditions, the network feature naturally has the rotation-equivariance property. Rotation equivariance means that applying a specific rotation transformation to the input point cloud is equivalent to applying the same rotation transformation to all intermediate-layer quaternion features. Besides, the REQNN also ensures that the intermediate-layer features are invariant to the permutation of input points. Compared with the original neural network, the REQNN exhibits higher rotation robustness.


InSphereNet: a Concise Representation and Classification Method for 3D Object

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this paper, we present an InSphereNet method for the problem of 3D object classification. Unlike previous methods that use points, voxels, or multi-view images as inputs of deep neural network (DNN), the proposed method constructs a class of more representative features named infilling spheres from signed distance field (SDF). Because of the admirable spatial representation of infilling spheres, we can not only utilize very fewer number of spheres to accomplish classification task, but also design a lightweight InSphereNet with less layers and parameters than previous methods. Experiments on ModelNet40 show that the proposed method leads to superior performance than PointNet in accuracy. In particular, if there are only a few dozen sphere inputs or about 100000 DNN parameters, the accuracy of our method remains at a very high level.


PointNet++: Deep Hierarchical Feature Learning on Point Sets in a Metric Space

Neural Information Processing Systems

Few prior works study deep learning on point sets. PointNet [20] is a pioneer in this direction. However, by design PointNet does not capture local structures induced by the metric space points live in, limiting its ability to recognize fine-grained patterns and generalizability to complex scenes. In this work, we introduce a hierarchical neural network that applies PointNet recursively on a nested partitioning of the input point set. By exploiting metric space distances, our network is able to learn local features with increasing contextual scales. With further observation that point sets are usually sampled with varying densities, which results in greatly decreased performance for networks trained on uniform densities, we propose novel set learning layers to adaptively combine features from multiple scales. Experiments show that our network called PointNet is able to learn deep point set features efficiently and robustly. In particular, results significantly better than state-of-the-art have been obtained on challenging benchmarks of 3D point clouds.