Additive asynchronous and cyclostationary impulsive noise limits communication performance in OFDM powerline communication (PLC) systems. Conventional OFDM receivers assume additive white Gaussian noise and hence experience degradation in communication performance in impulsive noise. Alternate designs assume a parametric statistical model of impulsive noise and use the model parameters in mitigating impulsive noise. These receivers require overhead in training and parameter estimation, and degrade due to model and parameter mismatch, especially in highly dynamic environments. In this paper, we model impulsive noise as a sparse vector in the time domain without any other assumptions, and apply sparse Bayesian learning methods for estimation and mitigation without training. We propose three iterative algorithms with different complexity vs. performance trade-offs: (1) we utilize the noise projection onto null and pilot tones to estimate and subtract the noise impulses; (2) we add the information in the data tones to perform joint noise estimation and OFDM detection; (3) we embed our algorithm into a decision feedback structure to further enhance the performance of coded systems. When compared to conventional OFDM PLC receivers, the proposed receivers achieve SNR gains of up to 9 dB in coded and 10 dB in uncoded systems in the presence of impulsive noise.
Receiver algorithms which combine belief propagation (BP) with the mean field (MF) approximation are well-suited for inference of both continuous and discrete random variables. In wireless scenarios involving detection of multiple signals, the standard construction of the combined BP-MF framework includes the equalization or multi-user detection functions within the MF subgraph. In this paper, we show that the MF approximation is not particularly effective for multi-signal detection. We develop a new factor graph construction for application of the BP-MF framework to problems involving the detection of multiple signals. We then develop a low-complexity variant to the proposed construction in which Gaussian BP is applied to the equalization factors. In this case, the factor graph of the joint probability distribution is divided into three subgraphs: (i) a MF subgraph comprised of the observation factors and channel estimation, (ii) a Gaussian BP subgraph which is applied to multi-signal detection, and (iii) a discrete BP subgraph which is applied to demodulation and decoding. Expectation propagation is used to approximate discrete distributions with a Gaussian distribution and links the discrete BP and Gaussian BP subgraphs. The result is a probabilistic receiver architecture with strong theoretical justification which can be applied to multi-signal detection.
Iterative information processing, either based on heuristics or analytical frameworks, has been shown to be a very powerful tool for the design of efficient, yet feasible, wireless receiver architectures. Within this context, algorithms performing message-passing on a probabilistic graph, such as the sum-product (SP) and variational message passing (VMP) algorithms, have become increasingly popular. In this contribution, we apply a combined VMP-SP message-passing technique to the design of receivers for MIMO-ODFM systems. The message-passing equations of the combined scheme can be obtained from the equations of the stationary points of a constrained region-based free energy approximation. When applied to a MIMO-OFDM probabilistic model, we obtain a generic receiver architecture performing iterative channel weight and noise precision estimation, equalization and data decoding. We show that this generic scheme can be particularized to a variety of different receiver structures, ranging from high-performance iterative structures to low complexity receivers. This allows for a flexible design of the signal processing specially tailored for the requirements of each specific application. The numerical assessment of our solutions, based on Monte Carlo simulations, corroborates the high performance of the proposed algorithms and their superiority to heuristic approaches.
We propose a framework for the derivation and evaluation of distributed iterative algorithms for receiver cooperation in interference-limited wireless systems. Our approach views the processing within and collaboration between receivers as the solution to an inference problem in the probabilistic model of the whole system. The probabilistic model is formulated to explicitly incorporate the receivers' ability to share information of a predefined type. We employ a recently proposed unified message-passing tool to infer the variables of interest in the factor graph representation of the probabilistic model. The exchange of information between receivers arises in the form of passing messages along some specific edges of the factor graph; the rate of updating and passing these messages determines the communication overhead associated with cooperation. Simulation results illustrate the high performance of the proposed algorithm even with a low number of message exchanges between receivers.
A new approach for blind channel equalization and decoding, using variational autoencoders (VAEs), is introduced. We first consider the reconstruction of uncoded data symbols transmitted over a noisy linear intersymbol interference (ISI) channel, with an unknown impulse response, without using pilot symbols. We derive an approximated maximum likelihood estimate to the channel parameters and reconstruct the transmitted data. We demonstrate significant and consistent improvements in the error rate of the reconstructed symbols, compared to existing blind equalization methods such as constant modulus, thus enabling faster channel acquisition. The VAE equalizer uses a fully convolutional neural network with a small number of free parameters. These results are extended to blind equalization over a noisy nonlinear ISI channel with unknown parameters. We then consider coded communication using low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes transmitted over a noisy linear or nonlinear ISI channel. The goal is to reconstruct the transmitted message from the channel observations corresponding to a transmitted codeword, without using pilot symbols. We demonstrate substantial improvements compared to expectation maximization (EM) using turbo equalization. Furthermore, in our simulations we demonstrate a relatively small gap between the performance of the new unsupervised equalization method and that of the fully channel informed (non-blind) turbo equalizer.