We introduce a novel logical notion--partial entailment--to propositional logic. In contrast with classical entailment, that a formula P partially entails another formula Q with respect to a background formula set \Gamma intuitively means that under the circumstance of \Gamma, if P is true then some "part" of Q will also be true. We distinguish three different kinds of partial entailments and formalize them by using an extended notion of prime implicant. We study their semantic properties, which show that, surprisingly, partial entailments fail for many simple inference rules. Then, we study the related computational properties, which indicate that partial entailments are relatively difficult to be computed. Finally, we consider a potential application of partial entailments in reasoning about rational agents.

Silva, Vivian S. (University of Passau) | Handschuh, Siegfried (University of Passau) | Freitas, André (University of Manchester)

Text entailment, the task of determining whether a piece of text logically follows from another piece of text, has become an important component for many natural language processing tasks, such as question answering and information retrieval. For entailments requiring world knowledge, most systems still work as a "black box," providing a yes/no answer that doesn't explain the reasoning behind it. We propose an interpretable text entailment approach that, given a structured definition graph, uses a navigation algorithm based on distributional semantic models to find a path in the graph which links text and hypothesis. If such path is found, it is used to provide a human-readable justification explaining why the entailment holds. Experiments show that the proposed approach present results comparable to some well-established entailment algorithms, while also meeting Explainable AI requirements, supplying clear explanations which allow the inference model interpretation.

The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a Semantic Web standard that provides a data language, simply called RDF, as well as a lightweight ontology language, called RDF Schema. We investigate embeddings of RDF in logic and show how standard logic programming and description logic technology can be used for reasoning with RDF. We subsequently consider extensions of RDF with datatype support, considering D entailment, defined in the RDF semantics specification, and D* entailment, a semantic weakening of D entailment, introduced by ter Horst. We use the embeddings and properties of the logics to establish novel upper bounds for the complexity of deciding entailment. We subsequently establish two novel lower bounds, establishing that RDFS entailment is PTime-complete and that simple-D entailment is coNP-hard, when considering arbitrary datatypes, both in the size of the entailing graph. The results indicate that RDFS may not be as lightweight as one may expect.

A nonmonotonic logic of thresholded generalizations is presented. Given propositions A and B from a language L and a positive integer k, the thresholded generalization A=>B{k} means that the conditional probability P(B|A) falls short of one by no more than c*d^k. A two-level probability structure is defined. At the lower level, a model is defined to be a probability function on L. At the upper level, there is a probability distribution over models. A definition is given of what it means for a collection of thresholded generalizations to entail another thresholded generalization. This nonmonotonic entailment relation, called "entailment in probability", has the feature that its conclusions are "probabilistically trustworthy" meaning that, given true premises, it is improbable that an entailed conclusion would be false. A procedure is presented for ascertaining whether any given collection of premises entails any given conclusion. It is shown that entailment in probability is closely related to Goldszmidt and Pearl's System-Z^+, thereby demonstrating that the conclusions of System-Z^+ are probabilistically trustworthy.