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Learning Continuous Hierarchies in the Lorentz Model of Hyperbolic Geometry

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We are concerned with the discovery of hierarchical relationships from large-scale unstructured similarity scores. For this purpose, we study different models of hyperbolic space and find that learning embeddings in the Lorentz model is substantially more efficient than in the Poincar\'e-ball model. We show that the proposed approach allows us to learn high-quality embeddings of large taxonomies which yield improvements over Poincar\'e embeddings, especially in low dimensions. Lastly, we apply our model to discover hierarchies in two real-world datasets: we show that an embedding in hyperbolic space can reveal important aspects of a company's organizational structure as well as reveal historical relationships between language families.


Poincaré Embeddings for Learning Hierarchical Representations

Neural Information Processing Systems

Representation learning has become an invaluable approach for learning from symbolic data such as text and graphs. However, state-of-the-art embedding methods typically do not account for latent hierarchical structures which are characteristic for many complex symbolic datasets. In this work, we introduce a new approach for learning hierarchical representations of symbolic data by embedding them into hyperbolic space -- or more precisely into an n-dimensional Poincaré ball. Due to the underlying hyperbolic geometry, this allows us to learn parsimonious representations of symbolic data by simultaneously capturing hierarchy and similarity. We present an efficient algorithm to learn the embeddings based on Riemannian optimization and show experimentally that Poincaré embeddings can outperform Euclidean embeddings significantly on data with latent hierarchies, both in terms of representation capacity and in terms of generalization ability.


Large-Margin Classification in Hyperbolic Space

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Representing data in hyperbolic space can effectively capture latent hierarchical relationships. With the goal of enabling accurate classification of points in hyperbolic space while respecting their hyperbolic geometry, we introduce hyperbolic SVM, a hyperbolic formulation of support vector machine classifiers, and elucidate through new theoretical work its connection to the Euclidean counterpart. We demonstrate the performance improvement of hyperbolic SVM for multi-class prediction tasks on real-world complex networks as well as simulated datasets. Our work allows analytic pipelines that take the inherent hyperbolic geometry of the data into account in an end-to-end fashion without resorting to ill-fitting tools developed for Euclidean space.


Poincar\'e Embeddings for Learning Hierarchical Representations

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Representation learning has become an invaluable approach for learning from symbolic data such as text and graphs. However, while complex symbolic datasets often exhibit a latent hierarchical structure, state-of-the-art methods typically learn embeddings in Euclidean vector spaces, which do not account for this property. For this purpose, we introduce a new approach for learning hierarchical representations of symbolic data by embedding them into hyperbolic space -- or more precisely into an n-dimensional Poincar\'e ball. Due to the underlying hyperbolic geometry, this allows us to learn parsimonious representations of symbolic data by simultaneously capturing hierarchy and similarity. We introduce an efficient algorithm to learn the embeddings based on Riemannian optimization and show experimentally that Poincar\'e embeddings outperform Euclidean embeddings significantly on data with latent hierarchies, both in terms of representation capacity and in terms of generalization ability.


Scalable Hyperbolic Recommender Systems

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We present a large scale hyperbolic recommender system. We discuss why hyperbolic geometry is a more suitable underlying geometry for many recommendation systems and cover the fundamental milestones and insights that we have gained from its development. In doing so, we demonstrate the viability of hyperbolic geometry for recommender systems, showing that they significantly outperform Euclidean models on datasets with the properties of complex networks. Key to the success of our approach are the novel choice of underlying hyperbolic model and the use of the Einstein midpoint to define an asymmetric recommender system in hyperbolic space. These choices allow us to scale to millions of users and hundreds of thousands of items.