On-street parking is convenient, but has many disadvantages: on-street spots come at the expense of other road uses such as traffic lanes, transit lanes, bike lanes, or parklets; drivers looking for parking contribute substantially to traffic congestion and hence to greenhouse gas emissions; safety is reduced both due to the fact that drivers looking for spots are more distracted than other road users and that people exiting parked cars pose a risk to cyclists. These social costs may not be worth paying when off-street parking lots are nearby and have surplus capacity. To see where this might be true in downtown Vancouver, we used artificial intelligence techniques to estimate the amount of time it would take drivers to both park on and off street for destinations throughout the city. For on-street parking, we developed (1) a deep-learning model of block-by-block parking availability based on data from parking meters and audits and (2) a computational simulation of drivers searching for an on-street spot. For off-street parking, we developed a computational simulation of the time it would take drivers drive from their original destination to the nearest city-owned off-street lot and then to queue for a spot based on traffic and lot occupancy data. Finally, in both cases we also computed the time it would take the driver to walk from their parking spot to their original destination. We compared these time estimates for destinations in each block of Vancouver's downtown core and each hour of the day. We found many areas where off street would actually save drivers time over searching the streets for a spot, and many more where the time cost for parking off street was small. The identification of such areas provides an opportunity for the city to repurpose valuable curbside space for community-friendly uses more in line with its transportation goals.
A deep learning model is proposed for predicting block-level parking occupancy in real time. The model leverages Graph-Convolutional Neural Networks (GCNN) to extract the spatial relations of traffic flow in large-scale networks, and utilizes Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) with Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM) to capture the temporal features. In addition, the model is capable of taking multiple heterogeneously structured traffic data sources as input, such as parking meter transactions, traffic speed, and weather conditions. The model performance is evaluated through a case study in Pittsburgh downtown area. The proposed model outperforms other baseline methods including multi-layer LSTM and Lasso with an average testing MAPE of 12.0\% when predicting block-level parking occupancies 30 minutes in advance. The case study also shows that, in generally, the prediction model works better for business areas than for recreational locations. We found that incorporating traffic speed and weather information can significantly improve the prediction performance. Weather data is particularly useful for improving predicting accuracy in recreational areas.
We present a queuing model of parking dynamics and a model-based prediction method to provide real-time probabilistic forecasts of future parking occupancy. The queuing model has a non-homogeneous arrival rate and time-varying service time distribution. All statistical assumptions of the model are verified using data from 29 truck parking locations, each with between 55 and 299 parking spots. For each location and each spot the data specifies the arrival and departure times of a truck, for 16 months of operation. The modeling framework presented in this paper provides empirical support for queuing models adopted in many theoretical studies and policy designs. We discuss how our framework can be used to study parking problems in different environments. Based on the queuing model, we propose two prediction methods, a microscopic method and a macroscopic method, that provide a real-time probabilistic forecast of parking occupancy for an arbitrary forecast horizon. These model-based methods convert a probabilistic forecast problem into a parameter estimation problem that can be tackled using classical estimation methods such as regressions or pure machine learning algorithms. We characterize a lower bound for an arbitrary real-time prediction algorithm. We evaluate the performance of these methods using the truck data comparing the outcomes of their implementations with other model-based and model-free methods proposed in the literature.
Tiedemann, Tim (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI)) | Voegele, Thomas (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI)) | Krell, Mario Michael (University of Bremen) | Metzen, Jan Hendrik (University of Bremen) | Kirchner, Frank (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) and University of Bremen)
In the presented research project, a software and hardware infrastructure for parking space focussed inter-modal route planning in a public pilot region in Berlin is developed. One central topic is the development of a prediction system which gives an estimated occupancy for the parking spaces in the pilot region for a given date and time in the future. Occupancy data will be collected online by roadside parking sensors developed within the project. The occupancy prediction will be implemented using “Neural Gas” machine learning in combination with a proposed method which uses data threads to improve the prediction quality. In this paper, a short overview of the whole research project is given. Furthermore, the concept of the software framework and the learning methods are presented and first collected data is shown. The prediction method using data threads is explained in more detail.
Subspace clustering aims to find groups of similar objects (clusters) that exist in lower dimensional subspaces from a high dimensional dataset. It has a wide range of applications, such as analysing high dimensional sensor data or DNA sequences. However, existing algorithms have limitations in finding clusters in non-disjoint subspaces and scaling to large data, which impinge their applicability in areas such as bioinformatics and the Internet of Things. We aim to address such limitations by proposing a subspace clustering algorithm using a bottom-up strategy. Our algorithm first searches for base clusters in low dimensional subspaces. It then forms clusters in higher-dimensional subspaces using these base clusters, which we formulate as a frequent pattern mining problem. This formulation enables efficient search for clusters in higher-dimensional subspaces, which is done using FP-trees. The proposed algorithm is evaluated against traditional bottom-up clustering algorithms and state-of-the-art subspace clustering algorithms. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm produces clusters with high accuracy, and scales well to large volumes of data. We also demonstrate the algorithm's performance using real-life data, including ten genomic datasets and a car parking occupancy dataset.