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Improving Query Efficiency of Black-box Adversarial Attack

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Deep neural networks (DNNs) have demonstrated excellent performance on various tasks, however they are under the risk of adversarial examples that can be easily generated when the target model is accessible to an attacker (white-box setting). As plenty of machine learning models have been deployed via online services that only provide query outputs from inaccessible models (e.g., Google Cloud Vision API2), black-box adversarial attacks (inaccessible target model) are of critical security concerns in practice rather than white-box ones. However, existing query-based black-box adversarial attacks often require excessive model queries to maintain a high attack success rate. Therefore, in order to improve query efficiency, we explore the distribution of adversarial examples around benign inputs with the help of image structure information characterized by a Neural Process, and propose a Neural Process based black-box adversarial attack (NP-Attack) in this paper. Extensive experiments show that NP-Attack could greatly decrease the query counts under the black-box setting.


Towards Query-Efficient Black-Box Adversary with Zeroth-Order Natural Gradient Descent

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Despite the great achievements of the modern deep neural networks (DNNs), the vulnerability/robustness of state-of-the-art DNNs raises security concerns in many application domains requiring high reliability. Various adversarial attacks are proposed to sabotage the learning performance of DNN models. Among those, the black-box adversarial attack methods have received special attentions owing to their practicality and simplicity. Black-box attacks usually prefer less queries in order to maintain stealthy and low costs. However, most of the current black-box attack methods adopt the first-order gradient descent method, which may come with certain deficiencies such as relatively slow convergence and high sensitivity to hyper-parameter settings. In this paper, we propose a zeroth-order natural gradient descent (ZO-NGD) method to design the adversarial attacks, which incorporates the zeroth-order gradient estimation technique catering to the black-box attack scenario and the second-order natural gradient descent to achieve higher query efficiency. The empirical evaluations on image classification datasets demonstrate that ZO-NGD can obtain significantly lower model query complexities compared with state-of-the-art attack methods.


GenAttack: Practical Black-box Attacks with Gradient-Free Optimization

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Deep neural networks (DNNs) are vulnerable to adversarial examples, even in the black-box case, where the attacker is limited to solely query access. Existing blackbox approaches to generating adversarial examples typically require a significant amount of queries, either for training a substitute network or estimating gradients from the output scores. We introduce GenAttack, a gradient-free optimization technique which uses genetic algorithms for synthesizing adversarial examples in the black-box setting. Our experiments on the MNIST, CIFAR-10, and ImageNet datasets show that GenAttack can successfully generate visually imperceptible adversarial examples against state-of-the-art image recognition models with orders of magnitude fewer queries than existing approaches. For example, in our CIFAR-10 experiments, GenAttack required roughly 2,568 times less queries than the current state-of-the-art black-box attack. Furthermore, we show that GenAttack can successfully attack both the state-of-the-art ImageNet defense, ensemble adversarial training, and non-differentiable, randomized input transformation defenses. GenAttack's success against ensemble adversarial training demonstrates that its query efficiency enables it to exploit the defense's weakness to direct black-box attacks. GenAttack's success against non-differentiable input transformations indicates that its gradient-free nature enables it to be applicable against defenses which perform gradient masking/obfuscation to confuse the attacker. Our results suggest that population-based optimization opens up a promising area of research into effective gradient-free black-box attacks.


ZOO: Zeroth Order Optimization based Black-box Attacks to Deep Neural Networks without Training Substitute Models

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Deep neural networks (DNNs) are one of the most prominent technologies of our time, as they achieve state-of-the-art performance in many machine learning tasks, including but not limited to image classification, text mining, and speech processing. However, recent research on DNNs has indicated ever-increasing concern on the robustness to adversarial examples, especially for security-critical tasks such as traffic sign identification for autonomous driving. Studies have unveiled the vulnerability of a well-trained DNN by demonstrating the ability of generating barely noticeable (to both human and machines) adversarial images that lead to misclassification. Furthermore, researchers have shown that these adversarial images are highly transferable by simply training and attacking a substitute model built upon the target model, known as a black-box attack to DNNs. Similar to the setting of training substitute models, in this paper we propose an effective black-box attack that also only has access to the input (images) and the output (confidence scores) of a targeted DNN. However, different from leveraging attack transferability from substitute models, we propose zeroth order optimization (ZOO) based attacks to directly estimate the gradients of the targeted DNN for generating adversarial examples. We use zeroth order stochastic coordinate descent along with dimension reduction, hierarchical attack and importance sampling techniques to efficiently attack black-box models. By exploiting zeroth order optimization, improved attacks to the targeted DNN can be accomplished, sparing the need for training substitute models and avoiding the loss in attack transferability. Experimental results on MNIST, CIFAR10 and ImageNet show that the proposed ZOO attack is as effective as the state-of-the-art white-box attack and significantly outperforms existing black-box attacks via substitute models.


Guessing Smart: Biased Sampling for Efficient Black-Box Adversarial Attacks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We consider adversarial examples in the black-box decision-based scenario. Here, an attacker has access to the final classification of a model, but not its parameters or softmax outputs. Most attacks for this scenario are based either on transferability, which is unreliable, or random sampling, which is often slow. Focusing on the latter, we propose to improve the efficiency of sampling-based attacks with prior beliefs about the target domain. We identify two such priors, image frequency and surrogate gradients, and discuss how to integrate them into a unified sampling procedure. We then formulate the Biased Boundary Attack, which achieves a drastic speedup over the original Boundary Attack. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach against an ImageNet classifier. We also showcase a targeted attack for the Google Cloud Vision API, where we craft convincing examples with just a few hundred queries. Finally, we demonstrate that our approach outperforms the state of the art when facing strong defenses: Our attack scored second place in the targeted attack track of the NeurIPS 2018 Adversarial Vision Challenge.