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Hierarchical Semi-Markov Conditional Random Fields for Recursive Sequential Data

Neural Information Processing Systems

Inspired by the hierarchical hidden Markov models (HHMM), we present the hierarchical semi-Markovconditional random field (HSCRF), a generalisation of embedded undirected Markov chains to model complex hierarchical, nested Markov processes. It is parameterised in a discriminative framework and has polynomial time algorithms for learning and inference. Importantly, we develop efficient algorithms forlearning and constrained inference in a partially-supervised setting, which is important issue in practice where labels can only be obtained sparsely. We demonstrate the HSCRF in two applications: (i) recognising human activities of daily living (ADLs) from indoor surveillance cameras, and (ii) noun-phrase chunking. We show that the HSCRF is capable of learning rich hierarchical models withreasonable accuracy in both fully and partially observed data cases.


Hierarchical Semi-Markov Conditional Random Fields for Recursive Sequential Data

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Inspired by the hierarchical hidden Markov models (HHMM), we present the hierarchical semi-Markov conditional random field (HSCRF), a generalisation of embedded undirectedMarkov chains tomodel complex hierarchical, nestedMarkov processes. It is parameterised in a discriminative framework and has polynomial time algorithms for learning and inference. Importantly, we consider partiallysupervised learning and propose algorithms for generalised partially-supervised learning and constrained inference. We demonstrate the HSCRF in two applications: (i) recognising human activities of daily living (ADLs) from indoor surveillance cameras, and (ii) noun-phrase chunking. We show that the HSCRF is capable of learning rich hierarchical models with reasonable accuracy in both fully and partially observed data cases.


Semi-Markov Conditional Random Fields for Information Extraction

Neural Information Processing Systems

We describe semi-Markov conditional random fields (semi-CRFs), a conditionally trainedversion of semi-Markov chains. Intuitively, a semi-CRF on an input sequence x outputs a "segmentation" of x, in which labels are assigned to segments (i.e., subsequences) of x rather than to individual elements x


Efficient Dependency-Guided Named Entity Recognition

AAAI Conferences

Named entity recognition (NER), which focuses on the extraction of semantically meaningful named entities and their semantic classes from text, serves as an indispensable component for several down-stream natural language processing (NLP) tasks such as relation extraction and event extraction. Dependency trees, on the other hand, also convey crucial semantic-level information. It has been shown previously that such information can be used to improve the performance of NER. In this work, we investigate on how to better utilize the structured information conveyed by dependency trees to improve the performance of NER. Specifically, unlike existing approaches which only exploit dependency information for designing local features, we show that certain global structured information of the dependency trees can be exploited when building NER models where such information can provide guided learning and inference. Through extensive experiments, we show that our proposed novel dependency-guided NER model performs competitively with models based on conventional semi-Markov conditional random fields, while requiring significantly less running time.


Predicting Extubation Readiness in Extreme Preterm Infants based on Patterns of Breathing

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Extremely preterm infants commonly require intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation after birth. While the duration of mechanical ventilation should be minimized in order to avoid complications, extubation failure is associated with increases in morbidities and mortality. As part of a prospective observational study aimed at developing an accurate predictor of extubation readiness, Markov and semi-Markov chain models were applied to gain insight into the respiratory patterns of these infants, with more robust time-series modeling using semi-Markov models. This model revealed interesting similarities and differences between newborns who succeeded extubation and those who failed. The parameters of the model were further applied to predict extubation readiness via generative (joint likelihood) and discriminative (support vector machine) approaches. Results showed that up to 84\% of infants who failed extubation could have been accurately identified prior to extubation.