Hierarchical Semi-Markov Conditional Random Fields for Recursive Sequential Data

Neural Information Processing Systems

Inspired by the hierarchical hidden Markov models (HHMM), we present the hierarchical semi-Markovconditional random field (HSCRF), a generalisation of embedded undirected Markov chains to model complex hierarchical, nested Markov processes. It is parameterised in a discriminative framework and has polynomial time algorithms for learning and inference. Importantly, we develop efficient algorithms forlearning and constrained inference in a partially-supervised setting, which is important issue in practice where labels can only be obtained sparsely. We demonstrate the HSCRF in two applications: (i) recognising human activities of daily living (ADLs) from indoor surveillance cameras, and (ii) noun-phrase chunking. We show that the HSCRF is capable of learning rich hierarchical models withreasonable accuracy in both fully and partially observed data cases.


Slice Normalized Dynamic Markov Logic Networks

Neural Information Processing Systems

Markov logic is a widely used tool in statistical relational learning, which uses a weighted first-order logic knowledge base to specify a Markov random field (MRF) or a conditional random field (CRF). In many applications, a Markov logic network (MLN) is trained in one domain, but used in a different one. This paper focuses on dynamic Markov logic networks, where the domain of time points typically varies between training and testing. It has been previously pointed out that the marginal probabilities of truth assignments to ground atoms can change if one extends or reduces the domains of predicates in an MLN. We show that in addition to this problem, the standard way of unrolling a Markov logic theory into a MRF may result in time-inhomogeneity of the underlying Markov chain.


Hierarchical Semi-Markov Conditional Random Fields for Recursive Sequential Data

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Inspired by the hierarchical hidden Markov models (HHMM), we present the hierarchical semi-Markov conditional random field (HSCRF), a generalisation of embedded undirectedMarkov chains tomodel complex hierarchical, nestedMarkov processes. It is parameterised in a discriminative framework and has polynomial time algorithms for learning and inference. Importantly, we consider partiallysupervised learning and propose algorithms for generalised partially-supervised learning and constrained inference. We demonstrate the HSCRF in two applications: (i) recognising human activities of daily living (ADLs) from indoor surveillance cameras, and (ii) noun-phrase chunking. We show that the HSCRF is capable of learning rich hierarchical models with reasonable accuracy in both fully and partially observed data cases.


Mixing Properties of Conditional Markov Chains with Unbounded Feature Functions

Neural Information Processing Systems

Conditional Markov Chains (also known as Linear-Chain Conditional Random Fields in the literature) are a versatile class of discriminative models for the distribution of a sequence of hidden states conditional on a sequence of observable variables. Large-sample properties of Conditional Markov Chains have been first studied by Sinn and Poupart [1]. The paper extends this work in two directions: first, mixing properties of models with unbounded feature functions are being established; second, necessary conditions for model identifiability and the uniqueness of maximum likelihood estimates are being given.


Semi-Markov Conditional Random Fields for Information Extraction

Neural Information Processing Systems

We describe semi-Markov conditional random fields (semi-CRFs), a conditionally trainedversion of semi-Markov chains. Intuitively, a semi-CRF on an input sequence x outputs a "segmentation" of x, in which labels are assigned to segments (i.e., subsequences) of x rather than to individual elements x