Software defined networking (SDN) represents a promising networking architecture that combines central management and network programmability. SDN separates the control plane from the data plane and moves the network management to a central point, called the controller, that can be programmed and used as the brain of the network. Recently, the research community has showed an increased tendency to benefit from the recent advancements in the artificial intelligence (AI) field to provide learning abilities and better decision making in SDN. In this study, we provide a detailed overview of the recent efforts to include AI in SDN. Our study showed that the research efforts focused on three main sub-fields of AI namely: machine learning, meta-heuristics and fuzzy inference systems. Accordingly, in this work we investigate their different application areas and potential use, as well as the improvements achieved by including AI-based techniques in the SDN paradigm.
This paper documents the release of the ELKI data mining framework, version 0.7.5. ELKI is an open source (AGPLv3) data mining software written in Java. The focus of ELKI is research in algorithms, with an emphasis on unsupervised methods in cluster analysis and outlier detection. In order to achieve high performance and scalability, ELKI offers data index structures such as the R*-tree that can provide major performance gains. ELKI is designed to be easy to extend for researchers and students in this domain, and welcomes contributions of additional methods. ELKI aims at providing a large collection of highly parameterizable algorithms, in order to allow easy and fair evaluation and benchmarking of algorithms. We will first outline the motivation for this release, the plans for the future, and then give a brief overview over the new functionality in this version. We also include an appendix presenting an overview on the overall implemented functionality.
Many efficient algorithms with strong theoretical guarantees have been proposed for the contextual multi-armed bandit problem. However, applying these algorithms in practice can be difficult because they require domain expertise to build appropriate features and to tune their parameters. We propose a new method for the contextual bandit problem that is simple, practical, and can be applied with little or no domain expertise. Our algorithm relies on decision trees to model the context-reward relationship. Decision trees are non-parametric, interpretable, and work well without hand-crafted features. To guide the exploration-exploitation trade-off, we use a bootstrapping approach which abstracts Thompson sampling to non-Bayesian settings. We also discuss several computational heuristics and demonstrate the performance of our method on several datasets.
The demand of metals by modern technology has been shifting from common base metals to a variety of minor metals, such as cobalt or indium. The industrial importance and limited geological availability of some minor metals have led to them being considered more "critical," and there is a growing interest in such critical metals and their producing companies. In this research, we create a novel framework, Dynamic Advisor-Based Ensemble (dynABE), to predict the stock trend of major critical metal producers. Specifically, dynABE first utilizes domain knowledge to group the features into different "advisors," each advisor dealing with a particular economic sector. Then through ensembles of weak classifiers, each advisor produces a prediction result, and all the advisors are combined again in a biased online update fashion to dynamically make the final prediction. Based on a misclassification error of 32% for Jinchuan Group's stock (HKG: 2362), we further test a simple stock trading strategy, which leads to a back-tested return of 296%, or an excess return of 130% within one year. In addition, the feature set selected by dynABE also suggests potentially influential factors to metal criticality, because stock prices of major producers influence metal production. Therefore, not only does this research propose a novel framework for specialized stock trend prediction, it also provides domain insights into dynamic features that potentially influence metal criticality.
Recent developments in SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) systems for physical infrastructure, such as high pressure gas pipeline systems and electric grids, have generated enormous amounts of time series data. This data brings great opportunities for advanced knowledge discovery and data mining methods to identify system failures faster and earlier than operation experts. This paper presents our effort in collaboration with a utility company to solve a grand challenge; namely, to use advanced data mining methods to detect leaks on a high pressure gas transmission system. Leak detection models with unsupervised learning tasks were developed analyzing billions of data records to identify leaks of different sizes and impacts, with very low false positive rates. In particular, our solution was able to identify small leaks leading to rupture events. The model also identified small leaks not identifiable with current detection systems. Such high-fidelity early identification enables operation personnel to take preventive measures against possible catastrophic events. We then formulate several generic detection methods with models derived from time series anomaly detection methods. We show that our leak detection models are superior to the SCADA alarm system, a mass balance model and other generic time series anomaly detection models in terms of both detection accuracy and computation time.