To guarantee the safe and efficient motion planning of autonomous driving under dynamic traffic environment, the autonomous vehicle should be equipped with not only the optimal but also a long term efficient policy to deal with complex scenarios. The first challenge is that to acquire the optimal planning trajectory means to sacrifice the planning efficiency. The second challenge is that most search based planning method cannot find the desired trajectory in extreme scenario. In this paper, we propose a data driven approach for motion planning to solve the above challenges. We transform the lane change mission into Mixed Integer Quadratic Problem with logical constraints, allowing the planning module to provide feasible, safe and comfortable actions in more complex scenario. Furthermore, we propose a hierarchical learning structure to guarantee online, fast and more generalized motion planning. Our approach's performance is demonstrated in the simulated lane change scenario and compared with related planning method.
Planning safe trajectories for autonomous vehicles in complex urban environments is challenging since there are numerous semantic elements (such as dynamic agents, traffic lights and speed limits) to consider. These semantic elements may have different mathematical descriptions such as obstacle, constraint and cost. It is non-trivial to tune the effects from different combinations of semantic elements for a stable and generalizable behavior. In this paper, we propose a novel unified spatio-temporal semantic corridor (SSC) structure, which provides a level of abstraction for different types of semantic elements. The SSC consists of a series of mutually connected collision-free cubes with dynamical constraints posed by the semantic elements in the spatio-temporal domain. The trajectory generation problem then boils down to a general quadratic programming (QP) formulation. Thanks to the unified SSC representation, our framework can generalize to any combination of semantic elements. Moreover, our formulation provides a theoretical guarantee that the entire trajectory is safe and constraint-satisfied, by using the convex hull and hodograph properties of piecewise Bezier curve parameterization. We also release the code of our method to accommodate benchmarking.
In this manuscript, we introduce a real-time motion planning system based on the Baidu Apollo (open source) autonomous driving platform. The developed system aims to address the industrial level-4 motion planning problem while considering safety, comfort and scalability. The system covers multilane and single-lane autonomous driving in a hierarchical manner: (1) The top layer of the system is a multilane strategy that handles lane-change scenarios by comparing lane-level trajectories computed in parallel. (2) Inside the lane-level trajectory generator, it iteratively solves path and speed optimization based on a Frenet frame. (3) For path and speed optimization, a combination of dynamic programming and spline-based quadratic programming is proposed to construct a scalable and easy-to-tune framework to handle traffic rules, obstacle decisions and smoothness simultaneously. The planner is scalable to both highway and lower-speed city driving scenarios. We also demonstrate the algorithm through scenario illustrations and on-road test results. The system described in this manuscript has been deployed to dozens of Baidu Apollo autonomous driving vehicles since Apollo v1.5 was announced in September 2017. As of May 16th, 2018, the system has been tested under 3,380 hours and approximately 68,000 kilometers (42,253 miles) of closed-loop autonomous driving under various urban scenarios. The algorithm described in this manuscript is available at https://github.com/ApolloAuto/apollo/tree/master/modules/planning.
Tactical decision making and strategic motion planning for autonomous highway driving are challenging due to the complication of predicting other road users' behaviors, diversity of environments, and complexity of the traffic interactions. This paper presents a novel end-to-end continuous deep reinforcement learning approach towards autonomous cars' decision-making and motion planning. For the first time, we define both states and action spaces on the Frenet space to make the driving behavior less variant to the road curvatures than the surrounding actors' dynamics and traffic interactions. The agent receives time-series data of past trajectories of the surrounding vehicles and applies convolutional neural networks along the time channels to extract features in the backbone. The algorithm generates continuous spatiotemporal trajectories on the Frenet frame for the feedback controller to track. Extensive high-fidelity highway simulations on CARLA show the superiority of the presented approach compared with commonly used baselines and discrete reinforcement learning on various traffic scenarios. Furthermore, the proposed method's advantage is confirmed with a more comprehensive performance evaluation against 1000 randomly generated test scenarios.
We present a novel optimization-based algorithm for motion planning in dynamic environments. Our approach uses a stochastic trajectory optimization framework to avoid collisions and satisfy smoothness and dynamics constraints. Our algorithm does not require a priori knowledge about global motion or trajectories of dynamic obstacles. Rather, we compute a conservative local bound on the position or trajectory of each obstacle over a short time and use the bound to compute a collision-free trajectory for the robot in an incremental manner. Moreover, we interleave planning and execution of the robot in an adaptive manner to balance between the planning horizon and responsiveness to obstacle. We highlight the performance of our planner in a simulated dynamic environment with the 7-DOF PR2 robot arm and dynamic obstacles.