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Embedding Uncertain Knowledge Graphs

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Embedding models for deterministic Knowledge Graphs (KG) have been extensively studied, with the purpose of capturing latent semantic relations between entities and incorporating the structured knowledge into machine learning. However, there are many KGs that model uncertain knowledge, which typically model the inherent uncertainty of relations facts with a confidence score, and embedding such uncertain knowledge represents an unresolved challenge. The capturing of uncertain knowledge will benefit many knowledge-driven applications such as question answering and semantic search by providing more natural characterization of the knowledge. In this paper, we propose a novel uncertain KG embedding model UKGE, which aims to preserve both structural and uncertainty information of relation facts in the embedding space. Unlike previous models that characterize relation facts with binary classification techniques, UKGE learns embeddings according to the confidence scores of uncertain relation facts. To further enhance the precision of UKGE, we also introduce probabilistic soft logic to infer confidence scores for unseen relation facts during training. We propose and evaluate two variants of UKGE based on different learning objectives. Experiments are conducted on three real-world uncertain KGs via three tasks, i.e. confidence prediction, relation fact ranking, and relation fact classification. UKGE shows effectiveness in capturing uncertain knowledge by achieving promising results on these tasks, and consistently outperforms baselines on these tasks.


Inductive Representation Learning on Large Graphs

Neural Information Processing Systems

Low-dimensional embeddings of nodes in large graphs have proved extremely useful in a variety of prediction tasks, from content recommendation to identifying protein functions. However, most existing approaches require that all nodes in the graph are present during training of the embeddings; these previous approaches are inherently transductive and do not naturally generalize to unseen nodes. Here we present GraphSAGE, a general, inductive framework that leverages node feature information (e.g., text attributes) to efficiently generate node embeddings. Instead of training individual embeddings for each node, we learn a function that generates embeddings by sampling and aggregating features from a node's local neighborhood. Our algorithm outperforms strong baselines on three inductive node-classification benchmarks: we classify the category of unseen nodes in evolving information graphs based on citation and Reddit post data, and we show that our algorithm generalizes to completely unseen graphs using a multi-graph dataset of protein-protein interactions.


Logic Attention Based Neighborhood Aggregation for Inductive Knowledge Graph Embedding

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Knowledge graph embedding aims at modeling entities and relations with low-dimensional vectors. Most previous methods require that all entities should be seen during training, which is unpractical for real-world knowledge graphs with new entities emerging on a daily basis. Recent efforts on this issue suggest training a neighborhood aggregator in conjunction with the conventional entity and relation embeddings, which may help embed new entities inductively via their existing neighbors. However, their neighborhood aggregators neglect the unordered and unequal natures of an entity's neighbors. To this end, we summarize the desired properties that may lead to effective neighborhood aggregators. We also introduce a novel aggregator, namely, Logic Attention Network (LAN), which addresses the properties by aggregating neighbors with both rules- and network-based attention weights. By comparing with conventional aggregators on two knowledge graph completion tasks, we experimentally validate LAN's superiority in terms of the desired properties.


KACC: A Multi-task Benchmark for Knowledge Abstraction, Concretization and Completion

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

A comprehensive knowledge graph (KG) contains an instance-level entity graph and an ontology-level concept graph. The two-view KG provides a testbed for models to "simulate" human's abilities on knowledge abstraction, concretization, and completion (KACC), which are crucial for human to recognize the world and manage learned knowledge. Existing studies mainly focus on partial aspects of KACC. In order to promote thorough analyses for KACC abilities of models, we propose a unified KG benchmark by improving existing benchmarks in terms of dataset scale, task coverage, and difficulty. Specifically, we collect new datasets that contain larger concept graphs, abundant cross-view links as well as dense entity graphs. Based on the datasets, we propose novel tasks such as multi-hop knowledge abstraction (MKA), multi-hop knowledge concretization (MKC) and then design a comprehensive benchmark. For MKA and MKC tasks, we further annotate multi-hop hierarchical triples as harder samples. The experimental results of existing methods demonstrate the challenges of our benchmark. The resource is available at https://github.com/thunlp/KACC.


Parasitic Neural Network for Zero-Shot Relation Extraction

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Conventional relation extraction methods can only identify limited relation classes and not recognize the unseen relation types that have no pre-labeled training data. In this paper, we explore the zero-shot relation extraction to overcome the challenge. The only requisite information about unseen types is the name of their labels. We propose a Parasitic Neural Network (PNN), and it can learn a mapping between the general feature representations of text samples and the distributions of unseen types in a shared semantic space. Experiment results show that our model significantly outperforms others on the unseen relation extraction task and achieves effect improvement more than 20%, when there are not any manual annotations or additional resources.