InfoGAN: Interpretable Representation Learning by Information Maximizing Generative Adversarial Nets

Neural Information Processing Systems

This paper describes InfoGAN, an information-theoretic extension to the Generative Adversarial Network that is able to learn disentangled representations in a completely unsupervised manner. InfoGAN is a generative adversarial network that also maximizes the mutual information between a small subset of the latent variables and the observation. We derive a lower bound to the mutual information objective that can be optimized efficiently, and show that our training procedure can be interpreted as a variation of the Wake-Sleep algorithm. Specifically, InfoGAN successfully disentangles writing styles from digit shapes on the MNIST dataset, pose from lighting of 3D rendered images, and background digits from the central digit on the SVHN dataset. It also discovers visual concepts that include hair styles, presence/absence of eyeglasses, and emotions on the CelebA face dataset. Experiments show that InfoGAN learns interpretable representations that are competitive with representations learned by existing fully supervised methods.

Featurized Bidirectional GAN: Adversarial Defense via Adversarially Learned Semantic Inference Machine Learning

Deep neural networks have been demonstrated to be vulnerable to adversarial attacks, where small perturbations are intentionally added to the original inputs to fool the classifier. In this paper, we propose a defense method, Featurized Bidirectional Generative Adversarial Networks (FBGAN), to capture the semantic features of the input and filter the non-semantic perturbation. FBGAN is pre-trained on the clean dataset in an unsupervised manner, adversarially learning a bidirectional mapping between the high-dimensional data space and the low-dimensional semantic space, and mutual information is applied to disentangle the semantically meaningful features. After the bidirectional mapping, the adversarial data can be reconstructed to denoised data, which could be fed into the classifier for classification. We empirically show the quality of reconstruction images and the effectiveness of defense.

Comparing Generative Adversarial Network Techniques for Image Creation and Modification Machine Learning

Generative adversarial networks (GANs) have demonstrated to be successful at generating realistic real-world images. In this paper we compare various GAN techniques, both supervised and unsupervised. The effects on training stability of different objective functions are compared. We add an encoder to the network, making it possible to encode images to the latent space of the GAN. The generator, discriminator and encoder are parameterized by deep convolutional neural networks. For the discriminator network we experimented with using the novel Capsule Network, a state-of-the-art technique for detecting global features in images. Experiments are performed using a digit and face dataset, with various visualizations illustrating the results. The results show that using the encoder network it is possible to reconstruct images. With the conditional GAN we can alter visual attributes of generated or encoded images. The experiments with the Capsule Network as discriminator result in generated images of a lower quality, compared to a standard convolutional neural network.

PixelGAN Autoencoders

Neural Information Processing Systems

In this paper, we describe the "PixelGAN autoencoder", a generative autoencoder in which the generative path is a convolutional autoregressive neural network on pixels (PixelCNN) that is conditioned on a latent code, and the recognition path uses a generative adversarial network (GAN) to impose a prior distribution on the latent code. We show that different priors result in different decompositions of information between the latent code and the autoregressive decoder. For example, by imposing a Gaussian distribution as the prior, we can achieve a global vs. local decomposition, or by imposing a categorical distribution as the prior, we can disentangle the style and content information of images in an unsupervised fashion. We further show how the PixelGAN autoencoder with a categorical prior can be directly used in semi-supervised settings and achieve competitive semi-supervised classification results on the MNIST, SVHN and NORB datasets.

ClusterGAN : Latent Space Clustering in Generative Adversarial Networks Machine Learning

Generative Adversarial networks (GANs) have obtained remarkable success in many unsupervised learning tasks and unarguably, clustering is an important unsupervised learning problem. While one can potentially exploit the latent-space back-projection in GANs to cluster, we demonstrate that the cluster structure is not retained in the GAN latent space. In this paper, we propose ClusterGAN as a new mechanism for clustering using GANs. By sampling latent variables from a mixture of one-hot encoded variables and continuous latent variables, coupled with an inverse network (which projects the data to the latent space) trained jointly with a clustering specific loss, we are able to achieve clustering in the latent space. Our results show a remarkable phenomenon that GANs can preserve latent space interpolation across categories, even though the discriminator is never exposed to such vectors. We compare our results with various clustering baselines and demonstrate superior performance on both synthetic and real datasets.