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A Simple Framework for Contrastive Learning of Visual Representations

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper presents SimCLR: a simple framework for contrastive learning of visual representations. We simplify recently proposed contrastive self-supervised learning algorithms without requiring specialized architectures or a memory bank. In order to understand what enables the contrastive prediction tasks to learn useful representations, we systematically study the major components of our framework. We show that (1) composition of data augmentations plays a critical role in defining effective predictive tasks, (2) introducing a learnable nonlinear transformation between the representation and the contrastive loss substantially improves the quality of the learned representations, and (3) contrastive learning benefits from larger batch sizes and more training steps compared to supervised learning. By combining these findings, we are able to considerably outperform previous methods for self-supervised and semi-supervised learning on ImageNet. A linear classifier trained on self-supervised representations learned by SimCLR achieves 76.5% top-1 accuracy, which is a 7% relative improvement over previous state-of-the-art, matching the performance of a supervised ResNet-50. When fine-tuned on only 1% of the labels, we achieve 85.8% top-5 accuracy, outperforming AlexNet with 100X fewer labels.


Towards Fine-grained Visual Representations by Combining Contrastive Learning with Image Reconstruction and Attention-weighted Pooling

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper presents Contrastive Reconstruction, ConRec - a self-supervised learning algorithm that obtains image representations by jointly optimizing a contrastive and a self-reconstruction loss. We showcase that state-of-the-art contrastive learning methods (e.g. SimCLR) have shortcomings to capture fine-grained visual features in their representations. ConRec extends the SimCLR framework by adding (1) a self-reconstruction task and (2) an attention mechanism within the contrastive learning task. This is accomplished by applying a simple encoder-decoder architecture with two heads. We show that both extensions contribute towards an improved vector representation for images with fine-grained visual features. Combining those concepts, ConRec outperforms SimCLR and SimCLR with Attention-Pooling on fine-grained classification datasets.


MS$^2$L: Multi-Task Self-Supervised Learning for Skeleton Based Action Recognition

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this paper, we address self-supervised representation learning from human skeletons for action recognition. Previous methods, which usually learn feature presentations from a single reconstruction task, may come across the overfitting problem, and the features are not generalizable for action recognition. Instead, we propose to integrate multiple tasks to learn more general representations in a self-supervised manner. To realize this goal, we integrate motion prediction, jigsaw puzzle recognition, and contrastive learning to learn skeleton features from different aspects. Skeleton dynamics can be modeled through motion prediction by predicting the future sequence. And temporal patterns, which are critical for action recognition, are learned through solving jigsaw puzzles. We further regularize the feature space by contrastive learning. Besides, we explore different training strategies to utilize the knowledge from self-supervised tasks for action recognition. We evaluate our multi-task self-supervised learning approach with action classifiers trained under different configurations, including unsupervised, semi-supervised and fully-supervised settings. Our experiments on the NW-UCLA, NTU RGB+D, and PKUMMD datasets show remarkable performance for action recognition, demonstrating the superiority of our method in learning more discriminative and general features. Our project website is available at https://langlandslin.github.io/projects/MSL/.


Contrastive Learning with Stronger Augmentations

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Representation learning has significantly been developed with the advance of contrastive learning methods. Most of those methods have benefited from various data augmentations that are carefully designated to maintain their identities so that the images transformed from the same instance can still be retrieved. However, those carefully designed transformations limited us to further explore the novel patterns exposed by other transformations. Meanwhile, as found in our experiments, the strong augmentations distorted the images' structures, resulting in difficult retrieval. Thus, we propose a general framework called Contrastive Learning with Stronger Augmentations~(CLSA) to complement current contrastive learning approaches. Here, the distribution divergence between the weakly and strongly augmented images over the representation bank is adopted to supervise the retrieval of strongly augmented queries from a pool of instances. Experiments on the ImageNet dataset and downstream datasets showed the information from the strongly augmented images can significantly boost the performance. For example, CLSA achieves top-1 accuracy of 76.2% on ImageNet with a standard ResNet-50 architecture with a single-layer classifier fine-tuned, which is almost the same level as 76.5% of supervised results. The code and pre-trained models are available in https://github.com/maple-research-lab/CLSA.


Self-supervised Neural Architecture Search

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Neural Architecture Search (NAS) has been used recently to achieve improved performance in various tasks and most prominently in image classification. Yet, current search strategies rely on large labeled datasets, which limit their usage in the case where only a smaller fraction of the data is annotated. Self-supervised learning has shown great promise in training neural networks using unlabeled data. In this work, we propose a self-supervised neural architecture search (SSNAS) that allows finding novel network models without the need for labeled data. We show that such a search leads to comparable results to supervised training with a "fully labeled" NAS and that it can improve the performance of self-supervised learning. Moreover, we demonstrate the advantage of the proposed approach when the number of labels in the search is relatively small.