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Quality Evaluation of GANs Using Cross Local Intrinsic Dimensionality

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) are an elegant mechanism for data generation. However, a key challenge when using GANs is how to best measure their ability to generate realistic data. In this paper, we demonstrate that an intrinsic dimensional characterization of the data space learned by a GAN model leads to an effective evaluation metric for GAN quality. In particular, we propose a new evaluation measure, CrossLID, that assesses the local intrinsic dimensionality (LID) of real-world data with respect to neighborhoods found in GAN-generated samples. Intuitively, CrossLID measures the degree to which manifolds of two data distributions coincide with each other. In experiments on 4 benchmark image datasets, we compare our proposed measure to several state-of-the-art evaluation metrics. Our experiments show that CrossLID is strongly correlated with the progress of GAN training, is sensitive to mode collapse, is robust to small-scale noise and image transformations, and robust to sample size. Furthermore, we show how CrossLID can be used within the GAN training process to improve generation quality.


Manifold regularization with GANs for semi-supervised learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Generative Adversarial Networks are powerful generative models that are able to model the manifold of natural images. We leverage this property to perform manifold regularization by approximating a variant of the Laplacian norm using a Monte Carlo approximation that is easily computed with the GAN. When incorporated into the semi-supervised feature-matching GAN we achieve state-of-the-art results for GAN-based semi-supervised learning on CIFAR-10 and SVHN benchmarks, with a method that is significantly easier to implement than competing methods. We also find that manifold regularization improves the quality of generated images, and is affected by the quality of the GAN used to approximate the regularizer.


Variational Approaches for Auto-Encoding Generative Adversarial Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Auto-encoding generative adversarial networks (GANs) combine the standard GAN algorithm, which discriminates between real and model-generated data, with a reconstruction loss given by an auto-encoder. Such models aim to prevent mode collapse in the learned generative model by ensuring that it is grounded in all the available training data. In this paper, we develop a principle upon which auto-encoders can be combined with generative adversarial networks by exploiting the hierarchical structure of the generative model. The underlying principle shows that variational inference can be used a basic tool for learning, but with the in- tractable likelihood replaced by a synthetic likelihood, and the unknown posterior distribution replaced by an implicit distribution; both synthetic likelihoods and implicit posterior distributions can be learned using discriminators. This allows us to develop a natural fusion of variational auto-encoders and generative adversarial networks, combining the best of both these methods. We describe a unified objective for optimization, discuss the constraints needed to guide learning, connect to the wide range of existing work, and use a battery of tests to systematically and quantitatively assess the performance of our method.


Perturbative GAN: GAN with Perturbation Layers

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Perturbative GAN, which replaces convolution layers of existing convolutional GANs (DCGAN, WGAN-GP, BIGGAN, etc.) with perturbation layers that adds a fixed noise mask, is proposed. Compared with the convolu-tional GANs, the number of parameters to be trained is smaller, the convergence of training is faster, the incep-tion score of generated images is higher, and the overall training cost is reduced. Algorithmic generation of the noise masks is also proposed, with which the training, as well as the generation, can be boosted with hardware acceleration. Perturbative GAN is evaluated using con-ventional datasets (CIFAR10, LSUN, ImageNet), both in the cases when a perturbation layer is adopted only for Generators and when it is introduced to both Generator and Discriminator.


ChainGAN: A sequential approach to GANs

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We propose a new architecture and training methodology for generative adversarial networks. Current approaches attempt to learn the transformation from a noise sample to a generated data sample in one shot. Our proposed generator architecture, called $\textit{ChainGAN}$, uses a two-step process. It first attempts to transform a noise vector into a crude sample, similar to a traditional generator. Next, a chain of networks, called $\textit{editors}$, attempt to sequentially enhance this sample. We train each of these units independently, instead of with end-to-end backpropagation on the entire chain. Our model is robust, efficient, and flexible as we can apply it to various network architectures. We provide rationale for our choices and experimentally evaluate our model, achieving competitive results on several datasets.