Semi-Supervised Learning by Augmented Distribution Alignment Machine Learning

In this work, we propose a simple yet effective semi-supervised learning approach called Augmented Distribution Alignment. We reveal that an essential sampling bias exists in semi-supervised learning due to the limited amount of labeled samples, which often leads to a considerable empirical distribution mismatch between labeled data and unlabeled data. To this end, we propose to align the empirical distributions of labeled and unlabeled data to alleviate the bias. On one hand, we adopt an adversarial training strategy to minimize the distribution distance between labeled and unlabeled data as inspired by domain adaptation works. On the other hand, to deal with the small sample size issue of labeled data, we also propose a simple interpolation strategy to generate pseudo training samples. Those two strategies can be easily implemented into existing deep neural networks. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach on the benchmark SVHN and CIFAR10 datasets, on which we achieve new state-of-the-art error rates of $3.54\%$ and $10.09\%$, respectively. Our code will be available at \url{}.

Semi-supervised Learning by Entropy Minimization

Neural Information Processing Systems

We consider the semi-supervised learning problem, where a decision rule is to be learned from labeled and unlabeled data. In this framework, we motivate minimum entropy regularization, which enables to incorporate unlabeled data in the standard supervised learning. Our approach includes otherapproaches to the semi-supervised problem as particular or limiting cases. A series of experiments illustrates that the proposed solution benefitsfrom unlabeled data. The method challenges mixture models when the data are sampled from the distribution class spanned by the generative model. The performances are definitely in favor of minimum entropy regularization when generative models are misspecified, and the weighting of unlabeled data provides robustness to the violation of the "cluster assumption". Finally, we also illustrate that the method can also be far superior to manifold learning in high dimension spaces.

Realistic Evaluation of Deep Semi-Supervised Learning Algorithms Machine Learning

Semi-supervised learning (SSL) provides a powerful framework for leveraging unlabeled data when labels are limited or expensive to obtain. SSL algorithms based on deep neural networks have recently proven successful on standard benchmark tasks. However, we argue that these benchmarks fail to address many issues that these algorithms would face in real-world applications. After creating a unified reimplementation of various widely-used SSL techniques, we test them in a suite of experiments designed to address these issues. We find that the performance of simple baselines which do not use unlabeled data is often underreported, that SSL methods differ in sensitivity to the amount of labeled and unlabeled data, and that performance can degrade substantially when the unlabeled dataset contains out-of-class examples. To help guide SSL research towards real-world applicability, we make our unified reimplemention and evaluation platform publicly available.

Projected Estimators for Robust Semi-supervised Classification Machine Learning

For semi-supervised techniques to be applied safely in practice we at least want methods to outperform their supervised counterparts. We study this question for classification using the well-known quadratic surrogate loss function. Using a projection of the supervised estimate onto a set of constraints imposed by the unlabeled data, we find we can safely improve over the supervised solution in terms of this quadratic loss. Unlike other approaches to semi-supervised learning, the procedure does not rely on assumptions that are not intrinsic to the classifier at hand. It is theoretically demonstrated that, measured on the labeled and unlabeled training data, this semi-supervised procedure never gives a lower quadratic loss than the supervised alternative. To our knowledge this is the first approach that offers such strong, albeit conservative, guarantees for improvement over the supervised solution. The characteristics of our approach are explicated using benchmark datasets to further understand the similarities and differences between the quadratic loss criterion used in the theoretical results and the classification accuracy often considered in practice.

Implicitly Constrained Semi-Supervised Least Squares Classification Machine Learning

We introduce a novel semi-supervised version of the least squares classifier. This implicitly constrained least squares (ICLS) classifier minimizes the squared loss on the labeled data among the set of parameters implied by all possible labelings of the unlabeled data. Unlike other discriminative semi-supervised methods, our approach does not introduce explicit additional assumptions into the objective function, but leverages implicit assumptions already present in the choice of the supervised least squares classifier. We show this approach can be formulated as a quadratic programming problem and its solution can be found using a simple gradient descent procedure. We prove that, in a certain way, our method never leads to performance worse than the supervised classifier. Experimental results corroborate this theoretical result in the multidimensional case on benchmark datasets, also in terms of the error rate.