We use princiles of fuzzy logic to develop a general model representing several processes in a system's operation characterized by a degree of vagueness and/or uncertainy. Further, we introduce three altenative measures of a fuzzy system's effectiveness connected to the above model. An applcation is also developed for the Mathematical Modelling process illustrating our results.

Samani, Zahra Riahi, Shamsfard, Mehrnoush

Conceptual formalism supported by typical ontologies may not be sufficient to represent uncertainty information which is caused due to the lack of clear cut boundaries between concepts of a domain. Fuzzy ontologies are proposed to offer a way to deal with this uncertainty. This paper describes the state of the art in developing fuzzy ontologies. The survey is produced by studying about 35 works on developing fuzzy ontologies from a batch of 100 articles in the field of fuzzy ontologies.

Raheja, Supriya, Rajpal, Smita

In the area of computer science focusing on creating machines that can engage on behaviors that humans consider intelligent. The ability to create intelligent machines has intrigued humans since ancient times and today with the advent of the computer and 50 years of research into various programming techniques, the dream of smart machines is becoming a reality. Researchers are creating systems which can mimic human thought, understand speech, beat the best human chessplayer, and countless other feats never before possible. Ability of the human to estimate the information is most brightly shown in using of natural languages. Using words of a natural language for valuation qualitative attributes, for example, the person pawns uncertainty in form of vagueness in itself estimations. Vague sets, vague judgments, vague conclusions takes place there and then, where and when the reasonable subject exists and also is interested in something. The vague sets theory has arisen as the answer to an illegibility of language the reasonable subject speaks. Language of a reasonable subject is generated by vague events which are created by the reason and which are operated by the mind. The theory of vague sets represents an attempt to find such approximation of vague grouping which would be more convenient, than the classical theory of sets in situations where the natural language plays a significant role. Such theory has been offered by known American mathematician Gau and Buehrer .In our paper we are describing how vagueness of linguistic variables can be solved by using the vague set theory.This paper is mainly designed for one of directions of the eventology (the theory of the random vague events), which has arisen within the limits of the probability theory and which pursue the unique purpose to describe eventologically a movement of reason.

Higgins, Charles M., Goodman, Rodney M.

First, the membership functions and an initial rule representation are learned; second, the rules are compressed as much as possible using information theory; and finally, a computational networkis constructed to compute the function value. This system is applied to two control examples: learning the truck and trailer backer-upper control system, and learning a cruise control systemfor a radio-controlled model car. 1 Introduction Function approximation is the problem of estimating a function from a set of examples ofits independent variables and function value. If there is prior knowledge of the type of function being learned, a mathematical model of the function can be constructed and the parameters perturbed until the best match is achieved. However, ifthere is no prior knowledge of the function, a model-free system such as a neural network or a fuzzy system may be employed to approximate an arbitrary nonlinear function. A neural network's inherent parallel computation is efficient for speed; however, the information learned is expressed only in the weights of the network. The advantage of fuzzy systems over neural networks is that the information learnedis expressed in terms of linguistic rules. In this paper, we propose a method for learning a complete fuzzy system to approximate example data.

Once a rule base has been formulated a fuzzy inference strategy must be applied in order to combine grades of membership. Considerable time and effort is spent trying to determine the number of fuzzy sets for a given system while substantially less time is invested in obtaining the most suitable inference strategy. This paper investigates a number of theoretical proven fuzzy inference strategies in order to assess the impact of these strategies on the performance of a fuzzy rule based classifier system. A fuzzy inference framework is proposed, which allows the investigation of five pure theoretical fuzzy inference operators in two real world applications. An additional two novel fuzzy-neural strategies are proposed and a comparative study is undertaken. The results show that the selection of the most suitable inference strategy for a given domain can lead to a significant improvement in performance.