The on-chip implementation of learning algorithms would speed-up the training of neural networks in crossbar arrays. The circuit level design and implementation of backpropagation algorithm using gradient descent operation for neural network architectures is an open problem. In this paper, we proposed the analog backpropagation learning circuits for various memristive learning architectures, such as Deep Neural Network (DNN), Binary Neural Network (BNN), Multiple Neural Network (MNN), Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM) and Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM). The circuit design and verification is done using TSMC 180nm CMOS process models, and TiO2 based memristor models. The application level validations of the system are done using XOR problem, MNIST character and Yale face image databases
The memristive crossbar aims to implement analog weighted neural network, however, the realistic implementation of such crossbar arrays is not possible due to limited switching states of memristive devices. In this work, we propose the design of an analog deep neural network with binary weight update through backpropagation algorithm using binary state memristive devices. We show that such networks can be successfully used for image processing task and has the advantage of lower power consumption and small on-chip area in comparison with digital counterparts. The proposed network was benchmarked for MNIST handwritten digits recognition achieving an accuracy of approximately 90%.
Synaptic Sampling Machine (SSM) is a type of neural network model that considers biological unreliability of the synapses. We propose the circuit design of the SSM neural network which is realized through the memristive-CMOS crossbar structure with the synaptic sampling cell (SSC) being used as a basic stochastic unit. The increase in the edge computing devices in the Internet of things era, drives the need for hardware acceleration for data processing and computing. The computational considerations of the processing speed and possibility for the real-time realization pushes the synaptic sampling algorithm that demonstrated promising results on software for hardware implementation.
Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) is a feed-forward artificial neural network developed for solving classification problems. This paper proposes a hardware implementation of an approximated PNN (APNN) algorithm in which the conventional exponential function of the PNN is replaced with gated threshold logic. The weights of the PNN are approximated using a memristive crossbar architecture. In particular, the proposed algorithm performs normalization of the training weights, and quantization into 16 levels which significantly reduces the complexity of the circuit.
Abstract--The automated wafer inspection and quality control is complex and time consuming task, which can be speed up using neuromorphic memristive architectures, as a separate inspection device or integrating directly into sensors. This paper presents the performance analysis and comparison of different neuromorphic architectures for patterned wafer quality inspection and classification. The application of nonvolatile memristive devices in these architectures ensures low power consumption, small on-chip area scalability. We demonstrate that Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM) outperforms other architectures for the same number of training iterations, and has relatively low on-chip area and power consumption. I. INTRODUCTION With the increase of density and complexity of semiconductor devices on the wafer, wafer surface inspection becomes increasingly complex, important, and time consuming task.